manpages.info - online man pages   

SunOS man pages : tail (1)

User Commands                                             tail(1)

NAME

tail - deliver the last part of a file

SYNOPSIS

/usr/bin/tail [ _ number [ lbcr ] ] [ file ] /usr/bin/tail [ -lbcr ] [ file ] /usr/bin/tail [ _ number [ lbcf ] ] [ file ] /usr/bin/tail [ -lbcf ] [ file ] /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [ -f | -r ] [ -c number | -n number ] [ file ] /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [ _ number [ l | b | c ] [ f ] ] [ file ] /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [ _ number [ l ] [ f | r ] ] [ file ]

DESCRIPTION

The tail utility copies the named file to the standard out- put beginning at a designated place. If no file is named, the standard input is used. Copying begins at a point in the file indicated by the -cnumber, -nnumber, or _number options (if +number is speci- fied, begins at distance number from the beginning; if -number is specified, from the end of the input; if number is NULL, the value 10 is assumed). number is counted in units of lines or byte according to the -c or -n options, or lines, blocks, or bytes, according to the appended option l, b, or c. When no units are specified, counting is by lines.

OPTIONS

The following options are supported for both /usr/bin/tail and /usr/xpg4/bin/tail. The -r and -f options are mutually exclusive. If both are specified on the command line, the -f option will be ignored. -b Units of blocks. -c Units of bytes. -f Follow. If the input-file is not a pipe, the program will not terminate after the line of the input-file has been copied, but will enter an endless loop, wherein it sleeps for a second and then attempts to SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 1 User Commands tail(1) read and copy further records from the input-file. Thus it may be used to monitor the growth of a file that is being written by some other process. -l Units of lines. -r Reverse. Copies lines from the specified starting point in the file in reverse order. The default for r is to print the entire file in reverse order. /usr/xpg4/bin/tail The following options are supported for /usr/xpg4/bin/tail only: -c number The number option-argument must be a decimal integer whose sign affects the location in the file, measured in bytes, to begin the copying: + Copying starts relative to the beginning of the file. - Copying starts relative to the end of the file. none Copying starts relative to the end of the file. The origin for counting is 1; that is, -c+1 represents the first byte of the file, -c-1 the last. -n number Equivalent to -cnumber, except the starting location in the file is measured in lines instead of bytes. The origin for counting is 1; that is, -n+1 represents the first line of the file, -n-1 the last.

OPERANDS

The following operand is supported: file A path name of an input file. If no file operands are specified, the standard input will be used.

USAGE

See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of tail when encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2 **31 bytes).

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Using the tail Command The following command will print the last ten lines of the file fred, followed by any lines that are appended to fred SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 2 User Commands tail(1) between the time tail is initiated and killed. example% tail -f fred The next command will print the last 15 bytes of the file fred, followed by any lines that are appended to fred between the time tail is initiated and killed: example% tail -15cf fred

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables that affect the execution of tail: LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS

The following exit values are returned: 0 Successful completion. >0 An error occurred.

ATTRIBUTES

See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri- butes: /usr/bin/tail ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWcsu | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | CSI | Enabled | |_____________________________|_____________________________| /usr/xpg4/bin/tail ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWxcu4 | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | CSI | Enabled | |_____________________________|_____________________________|

SEE ALSO

cat(1), head(1), more(1), pg(1), dd(1M), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), XPG4(5) SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 3 User Commands tail(1)

NOTES

Piped tails relative to the end of the file are stored in a buffer, and thus are limited in length. Various kinds of anomalous behavior may happen with character special files. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 4