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SunOS man pages : standards (5)

Standards, Environments, and Macros                  standards(5)

NAME

standards, ANSI, C, ISO, POSIX, POSIX.1, POSIX.2, SUS, SUSv2, SVID, SVID3, XNS, XNS4, XNS5, XPG, XPG3, XPG4, XPG4v2 - standards and specifications supported by Solaris

DESCRIPTION

Solaris 7 supports IEEE Std 1003.1 and IEEE Std 1003.2, com- monly known as POSIX.1 and POSIX.2, respectively. The fol- lowing table lists each version of these standards with a brief description and the SunOS or Solaris release that first conformed to it. POSIX Standard Description Release POSIX.1-1988 system interfaces and headers SunOS 4.1 POSIX.1-1990 POSIX.1-1988 update Solaris 2.0 POSIX.1b-1993 realtime extensions Solaris 2.4 POSIX.1c-1996 threads extensions Solaris 2.6 POSIX.2-1992 shell and utilities Solaris 2.5 POSIX.2a-1992 interactive shell and utilities Solaris 2.5 Solaris 7 also supports the X/Open Common Applications Environment (CAE) Portability Guide Issue 3 (XPG3) and Issue 4 (XPG4), Single UNIX Specification (SUS, also known as XPG4v2), and Single UNIX Specification, Version 2 (SUSv2). Both XPG4 and SUS include Networking Services Issue 4 (XNS4). SUSv2 includes Networking Services Issue 5 (XNS5). Solaris 7 also supports two application programming environ- ments, ILP32 (32-bit) and LP64 (64-bit). The following table lists each X/Open specification with a brief description and the SunOS or Solaris release that first conformed to it. X/Open CAE Specification Description Release XPG3 superset of POSIX.1-1988 SunOS 4.1 containing utilities from SVID3 XPG4 superset of POSIX.1-1990, Solaris 2.4 POSIX.2-1992, and POSIX.2a-1992 containing extensions to POSIX stan- dards from XPG3 SUS (XPG4v2) superset of XPG4 contain- Solaris 2.6 ing historical BSD inter- faces widely used by com- mon application packages XNS4 sockets and XTI interfaces Solaris 2.6 SunOS 5.8 Last change: 13 Jul 1998 1 Standards, Environments, and Macros standards(5) SUSv2 superset of SUS extended Solaris 7 to support POSIX.1b-1993, POSIX.1c-1996, and ISO/IEC 9899 (C Standard) Amend- ment 1 XNS5 superset and LP64-clean Solaris 7 derivative of XNS4. The XNS4 specification is safe for use only in ILP32 (32- bit) environments and should not be used for LP64 (64-bit) application environments. Use XNS5, which has LP64-clean interfaces that are portable across ILP32 and LP64 environ- ments. Solaris 7 has been branded to conform to The Open Group's UNIX 98 Product Standard. Solaris releases 2.0 through 7 also support the interfaces specified by the System V Interface Definition, Third Edi- tion, Volumes 1 through 4 (SVID3). Note, however, that since the developers of this specification (UNIX Systems Laboratories) are no longer in business and since this specification defers to POSIX and X/Open CAE specifications, there is some disagreement about what is currently required for conformance to this specification. When Sun WorkShop Compiler C 4.2 is installed, Solaris releases 2.0 through 7 support the ANSI X3.159-1989 Program- ming Language - C and ISO/IEC 9899:1990 Programming Language - C (C) interfaces. When Sun WorkShop Compiler C 5.0 is installed, Solaris 7 also supports ISO/IEC 9899 Amendment 1: C Integrity. Utilities If the behavior required by POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, XPG4, SUS, or SUSv2 conflicts with historical Solaris utility behavior, the original Solaris version of the utility is unchanged; a new version that is standard-conforming has been provided in /usr/xpg4/bin. For applications wishing to take advantage of POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, XPG4, SUS, or SUSv2 features, the PATH (sh or ksh) or path (csh) environment variables should be set with /usr/xpg4/bin preceding any other directories in which utilities specified by those specifications are found, such as /bin, /usr/bin, /usr/ucb, and /usr/ccs/bin. Feature Test Macros Feature test macros are used by applications to indicate additional sets of features that are desired beyond those specified by the C standard. If an application uses only those interfaces and headers defined by a particular SunOS 5.8 Last change: 13 Jul 1998 2 Standards, Environments, and Macros standards(5) standard (such as POSIX or X/Open CAE), then it need only define the appropriate feature test macro specified by that standard. If the application is using interfaces and headers not defined by that standard, then in addition to defining the appropriate standard feature test macro, it must also define __EXTENSIONS__. Defining __EXTENSIONS__ provides the application with access to all interfaces and headers not in conflict with the specified standard. The application must define __EXTENSIONS__ either at compile time or within the application. ANSI/ISO C No feature test macros need to be defined to indicate that an application is a conforming C application. POSIX Applications that are intended to be conforming POSIX.1 applications must define the feature test macros specified by the standard before including any headers. For the stan- dards listed below, applications must define the feature test macros listed. Application writers must check the corresponding standards for other macros that can be queried to determine if desired options are supported by the imple- mentation. POSIX Standard Feature Test Macros POSIX.1-1990 _POSIX_SOURCE POSIX.1-1990 and _POSIX_SOURCE and POSIX.2-1992 C-Language _POSIX_C_SOURCE=2 Bindings Option POSIX.1b-1993 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L POSIX.1c-1996 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L SVID3 The SVID3 specification does not specify any feature test macros to indicate that an application is written to meet SVID3 requirements. The SVID3 specification was written before the C standard was completed. X/Open CAE To build or compile an application that conforms to one of the X/Open CAE specifications, use the following guidelines. Applications need not set the POSIX feature test macros if they require both CAE and POSIX functionality. XPG3 The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE with a value other than 500 (preferably 1). XPG4 The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE with a value other than 500 (preferably 1) and set _XOPEN_VERSION=4. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 13 Jul 1998 3 Standards, Environments, and Macros standards(5) SUS (XPG4v2) The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE with a value other than 500 (preferably 1) and set _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1. SUSv2 The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=500. Compilation A POSIX.2-, XPG4-, SUS-, or SUSv2-conforming implementation must include an ANSI X3.159-1989 (ANSI C Language) standard-conforming compilation system and the cc and c89 utilities. Solaris 7 was tested with the cc and c89 utili- ties and the compilation system provided by Sun WorkShop Compiler C 5.0 in the SPARC and IA environments. When cc is used to link applications, /usr/ccs/lib/values-xpg4.o must be specified on any link/load command line, but the pre- ferred way to build applications is described below. An XNS4- or XNS5-conforming application must include -l XNS on any link/load command line. If the compiler suppports the redefine_extname pragma feature (the Sun WorkShop Compiler C 4.2 and Sun WorkShop Compiler C 5.0 compiler defines the macro __PRAGMA_REDEFINE_EXTNAME to indicate that it supports this feature), then the standard headers use #pragma redefine_extname directives to properly map function names onto library entry point names. This mapping provides full support for ISO C, POSIX, and X/Open namespace reservations. The Sun WorkShop Compiler C 5.0 compiler was used for all branding and certification tests for Solaris 7. If this pragma feature is not supported by the compiler, the headers use the #define directive to map internal function names onto appropriate library entry point names. In this instance, applications should avoid using the explicit 64- bit file offset symbols listed on the lf64(5) manual page, since these names are used by the implementation to name the alternative entry points. When using Sun WorkShop Compiler C 5.0, applications con- forming to the specifications listed above should be com- piled using the utilities and flags indicated in the follow- ing table: Specification Compiler/Flags Feature Test Macros ANSI/ISO C c89 none SVID3 cc -Xt none POSIX.1-1990 c89 _POSIX_SOURCE POSIX.1-1990 and c89 _POSIX_SOURCE and POSIX.2-1992 POSIX_C_SOURCE=2 C-Language SunOS 5.8 Last change: 13 Jul 1998 4 Standards, Environments, and Macros standards(5) Bindings Option POSIX.1b-1993 c89 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L POSIX.1c-1996 c89 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L CAE XPG3 cc -Xa _XOPEN_SOURCE CAE XPG4 c89 _XOPEN_SOURCE and _XOPEN_VERSION=4 SUS (CAE XPG4v2) c89 _XOPEN_SOURCE and (includes XNS4) _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1 SUSv2(includes XNS5) c89 _XOPEN_SOURCE=500 For platforms supporting the LP64 (64-bit) programming environment where the SC5.0 Compilers have been installed, SUSv2-conforming LP64 applications using XNS5 library calls should be built with command lines of the form: c89 $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500 \ $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c -o foo \ $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet

SEE ALSO

sysconf(3C), environ(5), lf64(5) SunOS 5.8 Last change: 13 Jul 1998 5