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SunOS man pages : rdist (1)

User Commands                                            rdist(1)


rdist - remote file distribution program


rdist [ -b ] [ -D ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -n ] [ -q ] [ -R ] [ -v ] [ -w ] [ -y ] [ -d macro = value ] [ -f distfile ] [ -m host ] ... rdist [ -b ] [ -D ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -n ] [ -q ] [ -R ] [ -v ] [ -w ] [ -y ] -c pathname ... [ login @ ] hostname [ : destpath ]


The rdist utility maintains copies of files on multiple hosts. It preserves the owner, group, mode, and modification time of the master copies, and can update programs that are executing. (Note: rdist does not propagate ownership or mode changes when the file contents have not changed.) Normally, a copy on a remote host is updated if its size or modifica- tion time differs from the original on the local host. There are two forms of the rdist command. In the first form shown in the SYNOPSIS section above, rdist reads the indi- cated distfile for instructions on updating files and/or directories. If distfile is `-', the standard input is used. If no -f option is present, rdist first looks in its working directory for distfile, and then for Distfile, for instruc- tions. The second form shown in SYNOPSIS uses the -c option and specifies paths as command line options. In order to be able to use rdist across machines, each host machine must have a /etc/host.equiv file, or the user must have an entry in the .rhosts file in the home directory. See hosts.equiv(4) for more information.


The following options are supported: -b Binary comparison. Performs a binary comparison and updates files if they differ, rather than merely com- paring dates and sizes. -D Enables debugging. -h Follows symbolic links. Copies the file that the link points to rather than the link itself. -i Ignores unresolved links. rdist will normally try to maintain the link structure of files being transferred and warn the user if all the links cannot be found. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 Nov 1999 1 User Commands rdist(1) -n Prints the commands without executing them. This option is useful for debugging a distfile. -q Quiet mode. Does not display the files being updated on the stan- dard output. -R Removes extraneous files. If a directory is being updated, removes files on the remote host that do not correspond to those in the master (local) directory. This is useful for maintaining truly identical copies of directories. -v Verifies that the files are up to date on all the hosts. Any files that are out of date are displayed, but no files are updated, nor is any mail sent. -w Whole mode. The whole file name is appended to the destination directory name. Normally, only the last component of a name is used when renaming files. This preserves the directory structure of the files being copied, instead of flattening the directory structure. For instance, renaming a list of files such as dir1/dir2 to dir3 would create files dir3/dir1 and dir3/dir2 instead of dir3 and dir3. When the -w option is used with a filename that begins with ~, everything except the home directory is appended to the destina- tion name. -y Younger mode. Does not update remote copies that are younger than the master copy, but issues a warning message instead. -d macro=value Defines macro to have value. This option is used to define or override macro definitions in the distfile. value can be the empty string, one name, or a list of names surrounded by parentheses and separated by white space. -c pathname ... [login@]hostname[:destpath] Copies each pathname to the named host; if destpath is specified, it will not update any pathname on the named host. (Relative filenames are taken as relative to your home directory.) If the `login@' prefix is given, the update is performed with the user ID of login. If the `:destpath' is given, the remote file is installed as that pathname. -f distfile Uses the description file distfile. A `-' as the distfile argument denotes the standard input. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 Nov 1999 2 User Commands rdist(1) -m host Limits which machines are to be updated. Multiple -m arguments can be given to limit updates to a subset of the hosts listed in the distfile.


White Space Characters <NEWLINE>, <TAB>, and <SPACE> characters are all treated as white space; a mapping continues across input lines until the start of the next mapping: either a single filename fol- lowed by a `->' or the opening parenthesis of a filename list. Comments Comments begin with # and end with a NEWLINE. Distfiles The distfile contains a sequence of entries that specify the files to be copied, the destination files to be copied, the destination hosts, and what operations to perform to do the updating. Each entry has one of the following formats: variable_name '=' name_list [ label: ] source_list '->' destination_list command_list [ label: ] source_list '::' time_stamp_file command_list The first format is used for defining variables. The second format is used for distributing files to other hosts. The third format is used for making lists of files that have been changed since some given date. The source list speci- fies a list of files and/or directories on the local host that are to be used as the master copy for distribution. The destination list is the list of hosts to which these files are to be copied. Each file in the source list is added to a list of changes if the file is out of date on the host that is being updated (second format) or if the file is newer than the time stamp file (third format). Labels are optional. They are used to identify a command for partial updates. The colon (:) is used after an optional label, while the double colon (::) is used for making lists of files that have been changed since a certain date (specified by the date/time of the time_stamp file). Typically, only notify is used with the '::' format of the command line. Macros rdist has a limited macro facility. Macros are only expanded in filename or hostname lists, and in the argument lists of certain primitives. Macros cannot be used to stand for primitives or their options, or the `->' or `::' symbols. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 Nov 1999 3 User Commands rdist(1) A macro definition is a line of the form: macro = value A macro reference is a string of the form: ${macro} although (as with make(1S)) the braces can be omitted if the macro name consists of just one character. Metacharacters The shell meta-characters: [, ], {, }, * and ? are recog- nized and expanded (on the local host only) just as they are with csh(1). Metacharacters can be escaped by prepending a backslash. The ~ character is also expanded in the same way as with csh; however, it is expanded separately on the local and destination hosts. Filenames File names that do not begin with `/' or `~' are taken to be relative to user's home directory on each destination host; they are not relative to the current working directory. Mul- tiple file names must be enclosed within parentheses. Primitives The following primitives can be used to specify actions rdist is to take when updating remote copies of each file. install [-b] [-h] [-i] [-R] [-v] [-w] [-y] [newname]" 6 Copy out of date files and directories (recursively). If no newname operand is given, the name of the local file is given to the remote host's copy. If absent from the remote host, parent directories in a filename's path are created. To help prevent disasters, a non-empty directory on a tar- get host is not replaced with a regular file or a sym- bolic link by rdist. However, when using the -R option, a non-empty directory is removed if the corresponding filename is completely absent on the master host. The options for install have the same semantics as their command line counterparts, but are limited in scope to a particular map. The login name used on the destination host is the same as the local host unless the destination name is of the format login@host. In that case, the update is performed under the username login. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 Nov 1999 4 User Commands rdist(1) notify address ... Send mail to the indicated email address of the form: user@host that lists the files updated and any errors that may have occurred. If an address does not contain a `@host' suffix, rdist uses the name of the destination host to complete the address. except filename ... Omit from updates the files named as arguments. except_pat pattern ... Omit from updates the filenames that match each regular-expression pattern (see ed(1) for more infor- mation on regular expressions). Note that `\' and `$' characters must be escaped in the distfile. Shell variables can also be used within a pattern, however shell filename expansion is not supported. special [filename] ... ""command-line""" 6 Specify a Bourne shell, sh(1) command line to execute on the remote host after each named file is updated. If no filename argument is present, the command-line is performed for every updated file, with the shell variable FILE set to the file's name on the local host. The quotation marks allow command-line to span input lines in the dist- file; multiple shell commands must be separated by semicolons (;). The default working directory for the shell executing each command-line is the user's home directory on the remote host. IPv6 The ftp command is IPv6-enabled. See ip6(7P).


Example 1: A sample distfile The following sample distfile instructs rdist to maintain identical copies of a shared library, a shared-library ini- tialized data file, several include files, and a directory, on hosts named hermes and magus. On magus, commands are exe- cuted as super-user. rdist notifies merlin@druid whenever it discovers that a local file has changed relative to a times- tamp file. (Parentheses are used when the source or destina- tion list contains zero or more names separated by white- space.) SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 Nov 1999 5 User Commands rdist(1) HOSTS = ( hermes root@magus ) FILES = ( /usr/local/lib/ /usrlocal/lib/ /usr/local/include/{*.h} /usr/local/bin ) (${FILES}) -> (${HOSTS}) install -R ; ${FILES} :: /usr/local/lib/timestamp notify merlin@druid ;


~/.rhosts user's trusted hosts and users /etc/host.equiv system trusted hosts and users /tmp/rdist* temporary file for update lists


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri- butes: ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWcsu | |_____________________________|_____________________________|


csh(1), ed(1), make(1S), sh(1), stat(2), hosts.equiv(4), attributes(5), ip6(7P)


A complaint about mismatch of rdist version numbers may really stem from some problem with starting your shell, for example, you are in too many groups.


The super-user does not have its accustomed access privileges on NFS mounted file systems. Using rdist to copy to such a file system may fail, or the copies may be owned by user "nobody".


Source files must reside or be mounted on the local host. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 Nov 1999 6 User Commands rdist(1) There is no easy way to have a special command executed only once after all files in a directory have been updated. Variable expansion only works for name lists; there should be a general macro facility. rdist aborts on files that have a negative modification time (before Jan 1, 1970). There should be a "force" option to allow replacement of non-empty directories by regular files or symlinks. A means of updating file modes and owners of otherwise identical files is also needed. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 Nov 1999 7