SunOS man pages : neqn (1)
User Commands eqn(1)
NAME
eqn, neqn, checkeq  typeset mathematics test
SYNOPSIS
eqn [ d xy ] [ f n ] [ p n ] [ s n ] [ file ... ]
neqn [ file ... ]
checkeq [ file ... ]
DESCRIPTION
eqn and neqn are language processors to assist in describing
equations. eqn is a preprocessor for troff(1) and is
intended for devices that can print troff's output. neqn is
a preprocessor for nroff(1) and is intended for use with
terminals. Usage is almost always:
example% eqn file ...  troff
example% neqn file ...  nroff
If no files are specified, eqn and neqn read from the stan
dard input. A line beginning with .EQ marks the start of an
equation; the end of an equation is marked by a line begin
ning with .EN. Neither of these lines is altered, so they
may be defined in macro packages to get centering, number
ing, etc. It is also possible to set two characters as
``delimiters''; subsequent text between delimiters is also
treated as eqn input.
checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN
pairs.
OPTIONS
The following options are supported:
dxy Set equation delimiters set to characters x and y with
the commandline argument. The more common way to do
this is with delim xy between .EQ and .EN. The left
and right delimiters may be identical. Delimiters are
turned off by delim off appearing in the text. All
text that is neither between delimiters nor between
.EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.
fn Change font to n globally in the document. The font
can also be changed globally in the body of the docu
ment by using the gfont n directive, where n is the
font specification.
pn Reduce subscripts and superscripts by n point sizes
from the previous size. In the absence of the p
SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1996 1
User Commands eqn(1)
option, subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3
point sizes from the previous size.
sn Change point size to n globally in the document. The
point size can also be changed globally in the body of
the document by using the gsize n directive, where n
is the point size.
OPERANDS
The following operands are supported:
file The nroff or troff file processed by eqn or neqn.
EQN LANGUAGE
The nroff version of this description depicts the output of
neqn to the terminal screen exactly as neqn is able to
display it. To see an accurate depiction of the output the
printed version of this page should be viewed.
Tokens within eqn are separated by braces, double quotes,
tildes, circumflexes, <SPACE>, <TAB>, or NEWLINE characters.
Braces {} are used for grouping; generally speaking, any
where a single character like x could appear, a complicated
construction enclosed in braces may be used instead. A
tilde (~) represents a full <SPACE> in the output; a circum
flex (^) half as much.
Subscripts and superscripts:
These are produced with the keywords sub and sup.
x sub i
makes xi
a sub i sup 2
produces ai **2
e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}
gives e**x**2+y**2
Fractions:
Fractions are made with over.
a over b
yields
a
_
b
SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1996 2
User Commands eqn(1)
Square Roots:
These are made with sqrt
1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}
" 6 results in
1
__________
__ 2 _
ax \/ +bx+c
Limits:
The keywords from and to introduce lower and upper
limits on arbitrary things:
lim from {n> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i
makes
n
lim >xi
n>oo0
Brackets and Braces:
Left and right brackets, braces, etc., of the right
height are made with left and right.
left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1
produces
2
 2 y
x + __
  = 1.
a 
The right clause is optional. Legal characters
after left and right are braces, brackets, bars,
c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing
at all (useful for a rightsideonly bracket).
Vertical piles:
Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile,
cpile, and rpile.
pile {a above b above c}
SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1996 3
User Commands eqn(1)
produces
a
b
c
There can be an arbitrary number of elements in a
pile. lpile leftjustifies, pile and cpile
center, with different vertical spacing, and
rpile right justifies.
Matrices:
Matrices are made with matrix.
matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub
xi
2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } } " 6 produces
1
y2
2
xi
1
y2
2
In addition, there is rcol for a rightjustified
column.
Diacritical marks:
Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat,
tilde, bar, vec, dyad, and under.
x dot = f(t) bar
is
__ _
.x=f(t)
y dotdot bar ~=~ n under
is
_
= _n, .y.
SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1996 4
User Commands eqn(1)
x vec ~=~ y dyad
is
x>= <.
Sizes and Fonts:
Sizes and font can be changed with size n or size _n,
roman, italic, bold, and font n. Size and fonts can be
changed globally in a document by gsize n and gfont n,
or by the commandline arguments sn and fn.
Successive display arguments:
Successive display arguments can be lined up. Place
mark before the desired lineup point in the first
equation; place lineup at the place that is to line up
vertically in subsequent equations.
Shorthands:
Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords rede
fined with define:
define thing % replacement %
Defines a new token called thing which will be
replaced by replacement whenever it appears
thereafter. The % may be any character that does
not occur in replacement.
Keywords and Shorthands:
Keywords like sum int inf and shorthands like >= >
and != are recognized.
Greek letters:
Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as
in alpha or GAMMA.
Mathematical words:
Mathematical words like sin, cos, and log are made
Roman automatically.
troff(1) fourcharacter escapes like \(bu (o) can be used
anywhere. Strings enclosed in double quotes "..." are passed
through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as
text, and can be used to communicate with troff when all
else fails.
ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri
butes:
SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1996 5
User Commands eqn(1)
____________________________________________________________
 ATTRIBUTE TYPE  ATTRIBUTE VALUE 
 Availability  SUNWdoc 
__________________________________________________________
SEE ALSO
nroff(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(5), ms(5)
BUGS
To embolden characters such as digits and parentheses, it
is necessary to quote them, as in `bold "12.3"'.
SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1996 6



