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SunOS man pages : ex (1)

User Commands                                               ex(1)


ex - text editor


/usr/bin/ex [ -| -s ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -R ] [ -r [ file ] ] [ -t tag ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -x ] [ -wn ] [ -C ] [ +command | -c command ] file ... /usr/xpg4/bin/ex [ -| -s ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -R ] [ -r [ file ] ] [ -t tag ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -x ] [ -wn ] [ -C ] [ +command | -c command ] file ...


The ex utility is the root of a family of editors: ex and vi. ex is a superset of ed(1), with the most notable exten- sion being a display editing facility. Display based editing is the focus of vi. If you have a CRT terminal, you may wish to use a display based editor; in this case see vi(1), which is a command which focuses on the display-editing portion of ex. If you have used ed you will find that, in addition to hav- ing all of the ed commands available, ex has a number of additional features useful on CRT terminals. Intelligent terminals and high speed terminals are very pleasant to use with vi. Generally, the ex editor uses far more of the capa- bilities of terminals than ed does, and uses the terminal capability data base (see terminfo(4)) and the type of the terminal you are using from the environment variable TERM to determine how to drive your terminal efficiently. The editor makes use of features such as insert and delete character and line in its visual command (which can be abbreviated vi) and which is the central mode of editing when using the vi command. The ex utility contains a number of features for easily viewing the text of the file. The z command gives easy access to windows of text. Typing ^D (CTRL-D) causes the editor to scroll a half-window of text and is more useful for quickly stepping through a file than just typing return. Of course, the screen-oriented visual mode gives constant access to editing context. The ex utility gives you help when you make mistakes. The undo (u) command allows you to reverse any single change which goes astray. ex gives you a lot of feedback, normally printing changed lines, and indicates when more than a few lines are affected by a command so that it is easy to detect when a command has affected more lines than it should have. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 1 User Commands ex(1) The editor also normally prevents overwriting existing files, unless you edited them, so that you do not acciden- tally overwrite a file other than the one you are editing. If the system (or editor) crashes, or you accidentally hang up the telephone, you can use the editor recover command (or -r file option) to retrieve your work. This will get you back to within a few lines of where you left off. The ex utility has several features for dealing with more than one file at a time. You can give it a list of files on the command line and use the next (n) command to deal with each in turn. The next command can also be given a list of file names, or a pattern as used by the shell to specify a new set of files to be dealt with. In general, file names in the editor may be formed with full shell metasyntax. The metacharacter `%' is also available in forming file names and is replaced by the name of the current file. The editor has a group of buffers whose names are the ASCII lower-case letters (a-z). You can place text in these named buffers where it is available to be inserted elsewhere in the file. The contents of these buffers remain available when you begin editing a new file using the edit (e) com- mand. There is a command & in ex which repeats the last substitute command. In addition, there is a confirmed substitute com- mand. You give a range of substitutions to be done and the editor interactively asks whether each substitution is desired. It is possible to ignore the case of letters in searches and substitutions. ex also allows regular expressions which match words to be constructed. This is convenient, for exam- ple, in searching for the word ``edit'' if your document also contains the word ``editor.'' ex has a set of options which you can set to tailor it to your liking. One option which is very useful is the autoin- dent option that allows the editor to supply leading white space to align text automatically. You can then use ^D as a backtab and space or tab to move forward to align new code easily. Miscellaneous useful features include an intelligent join (j) command that supplies white space between joined lines automatically, commands < and > which shift groups of lines, and the ability to filter portions of the buffer through commands such as sort.


SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 2 User Commands ex(1) The following options are supported: - | -s Suppress all interactive user feedback. This is use- ful when processing editor scripts. -l Set up for editing LISP programs. -L List the name of all files saved as the result of an editor or system crash. -R Readonly mode; the readonly flag is set, preventing accidental overwriting of the file. -r file Edit file after an editor or system crash. (Recovers the version of file that was in the buffer when the crash occurred.) -t tag Edit the file containing the tag and position the edi- tor at its definition. -v Start up in display editing state using vi. You can achieve the same effect by simply typing the vi com- mand itself. -V Verbose. When ex commands are read by means of stan- dard input, the input will be echoed to standard error. This may be useful when processing ex commands within shell scripts. -x Encryption option. Simulates the X command and prompts the user for a key. This key is used to encrypt and decrypt text using the algorithm of the crypt command. The X command makes an educated guess to determine whether text read in is encrypted or not. The tem- porary buffer file is encrypted also, using a transformed version of the key typed in for the -x option. -wn Set the default window size to n. This is useful when using the editor over a slow speed line. -C Encryption option. Same as the -x option, except simu- lates the C command. The C command is like the X com- mand, except that all text read in is assumed to have been encrypted. +command | -c command Begin editing by executing the specified editor com- mand (usually a search or positioning command). SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 3 User Commands ex(1) /usr/xpg4/bin/ex If both the -t tag and the -c command options are given, the -t tag will be processed first. That is, the file containing the tag is selected by -t and then the command is executed.


The following operand is supported: file A path name of a file to be edited.


ex States Command Normal and initial state. Input prompted for by ":". Your line kill character cancels a partial command. Insert Entered by a, i, or c. Arbitrary text may be entered. Insert state normally is terminated by a line having only "." on it, or, abnormally, with an interrupt. Visual Entered by typing vi; terminated by typing Q or ^\ (CTRL-\). ex Command Names and Abbreviations Command Name Abbrev- iation Command Name Abbrev- iation Command Name Abbrev- iation abbrev ab map set se append a mark ma shell sh args ar move m source so change c next n substitute s copy co number nu unabbrev unab delete d preserve pre undo u edit e print p unmap unm file f put pu version ve global g quit q visual vi insert i read r write w join j recover rec xit x list l rewind rew yank ya /usr/xpg4/bin/ex ex Command Arguments For all of the ex commands listed below, if both a count and a range are specified for a command that uses them, the number of lines affected will be taken from the count value rather than the range. The starting line for the command is taken to be the first line addressed by the range. Abbreviate ab[brev] word rhs SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 4 User Commands ex(1) Append [line] a[ppend][!] Arguments ar[gs] Change [range] c[hange][!] [count] Change Directory chd[ir][!] [directory]; cd[!] [directory] Copy [range] co[py] line [flags]; [range] t line [flags] Delete [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Edit e[dit][!] [+line][file]; ex[!] [+line] [file] File f[ile] [file] Global [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands]; [range] v /pat- tern/ [commands] Insert [line] i[nsert][!] Join [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] List [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Map map[!] [x rhs] Mark [line] ma[rk] x; [line] k x Move [range] m[ove] line Next n[ext][!] [file ...] Number [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]; [range] # [count] [flags] Open [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags] Preserve pre[serve] Print [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Put [line] pu[t] [buffer] SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 5 User Commands ex(1) Quit q[uit][!] Read [line] r[ead][!] [file] Recover rec[over] file Rewind rew[ind][!] Set se[t] [option[=[value]]...] [noop- tion...] [option?...] [all] Shell sh[ell] Source so[urce] file Substitute [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/repl/[options] [count] [flags]] Suspend su[spend][!]; st[op][!] Tag ta[g][!] tagstring Unabbreviate una[bbrev] word Undo u[ndo] Unmap unm[ap][!] x Visual [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags] Write [range} w[rite][!] [>>] [file]; [range} w[rite] [!] [file]; [range} wq[!] [>>] [file] Write and Exit [range] x[it][!] [file] Yank [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Adjust Window [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Escape ! command [range]! command Shift Left [range] < [count] [flags] SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 6 User Commands ex(1) Shift Right [range] > [count] [flags] Resubstitute [range] & [options] [count] [flags]; [range] s[ubstitute] [options] [count] [flags]; [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags] Scroll EOF Write Line Number [line] = [flags] Execute @ buffer; * buffer ex Commands C forced encryption X heuristic encryption & resubst CR print next > rshift < lshift ^D scroll z window ! shell escape ex Command Addresses n line n . current $ last + next - previous +n n forward % 1,$ /pat next with pat SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 7 User Commands ex(1) ?pat previous with pat x-n n before x x,y x through n 'x marked with x '' previous context Initializing options EXINIT place set's here in environment variable $HOME/.exrc editor initialization file ./.exrc editor initialization file set x enable option x set nox disable option x set x=val give value val to option x set show changed options set all show all options set x? show value of option x Most useful options and their abbreviations autoindent ai supply indent autowrite aw write before changing files directory pathname of directory for temporary work files exrc ex allow vi/ex to read the .exrc in the current directory. This option is set in the EXINIT shell variable or in the .exrc file in the $HOMEdirectory. ignorecase ic ignore case of letters in scanning list print ^I for tab, $ at end magic treat . [ * special in patterns SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 8 User Commands ex(1) modelines first five lines and last five lines executed as vi/ex commands if they are of the form ex:command: or vi:command: number nu number lines paragraphs para macro names that start paragraphs redraw simulate smart terminal report informs you if the number of lines modified by the last command is greater than the value of the report variable scroll command mode lines sections sect macro names that start sections shiftwidth sw for < >, and input ^D showmatch sm to ) and } as typed showmode smd show insert mode in vi slowopen slow stop updates during insert term specifies to vi the type of termi- nal being used (the default is the value of the environment variable TERM) window visual mode lines wrapmargin wm automatic line splitting wrapscan ws search around end (or beginning) of buffer Scanning pattern formation ^ beginning of line $ end of line . any character \< beginning of word \> end of word [str] any character in str [^str] any character not in str [xy] any character between x and y * any number of preceding characters


See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables that affect the execution of ex: HOME, PATH, SHELL, TERM, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 9 User Commands ex(1) COLUMNS Override the system-selected horizontal screen size. EXINIT Determine a list of ex commands that are executed on editor start-up, before reading the first file. The list can contain multiple commands by separating them using a vertical-line (|) character. LINES Override the system-selected vertical screen size, used as the number of lines in a screenful and the vertical screen size in visual mode.


The following exit values are returned: 0 Successful completion. >0 An error occurred.


/var/tmp/Exnnnnn editor temporary /var/tmp/Rxnnnnn named buffer temporary /usr/lib/expreserve preserve command /usr/lib/exrecover recover command /usr/lib/exstrings error messages /usr/share/lib/terminfo/* describes capabilities of terminals /var/preserve/login preservation directory (where login is the user's login) $HOME/.exrc editor startup file ./.exrc editor startup file


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri- butes: SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 10 User Commands ex(1) /usr/bin/ex ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWcsu | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | CSI | enabled | |_____________________________|_____________________________| /usr/xpg4/bin/ex ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWxcu4 | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | CSI | enabled | |_____________________________|_____________________________|


ed(1), edit(1), grep(1), sed(1), sort(1), vi(1), curses (3CURSES), term(4), terminfo(4), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5) OpenWindows Advanced User's Guide


The vi and ex utilities are based on software developed by The University of California, Berkeley California, Computer Science Division, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.


Several options, although they continue to be supported, have been replaced in the documentation by options that fol- low the Command Syntax Standard (see intro(1)). The - option has been replaced by -s, a -r option that is not followed with an option-argument has been replaced by -L, and +com- mand has been replaced by -c command. The message file too large to recover with -r option, which is seen when a file is loaded, indicates that the file can be edited and saved successfully, but if the editing session is lost, recovery of the file with the -r option will not be possible. The z command prints the number of logical rather than phy- sical lines. More than a screen full of output may result if long lines are present. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 11 User Commands ex(1) File input/output errors do not print a name if the command line -s option is used. The editing environment defaults to certain configuration options. When an editing session is initiated, ex attempts to read the EXINIT environment variable. If it exists, the editor uses the values defined in EXINIT, otherwise the values set in $HOME/.exrc are used. If $HOME/.exrc does not exist, the default values are used. To use a copy of .exrc located in the current directory other than $HOME, set the exrc option in EXINIT or $HOME/.exrc. Options set in EXINIT can be turned off in a local .exrc only if exrc is set in EXINIT or $HOME/.exrc. There is no easy way to do a single scan ignoring case. The editor does not warn if text is placed in named buffers and not used before exiting the editor. Null characters are discarded in input files and cannot appear in resultant files. The standard Solaris version of ex will be replaced by the POSIX.2-conforming version (see standards(5)) in the future. Scripts which use the ex family of addressing and features should use the /usr/xpg4/bin version of these utilities. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Mar 1997 12