SunOS man pages : chmod (1)
chmod - change file access permissions
chmod [OPTION]... MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
chmod [OPTION]... OCTAL-MODE FILE...
chmod [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...
This manual page documents the GNU version of chmod. chmod
changes the permissions of each given file according to
mode, which can be either a symbolic representation of
changes to make, or an octal number representing the bit
pattern for the new permissions.
The format of a symbolic mode is `[ugoa...][[+-
=][rwxXstugo...]...][,...]'. Multiple symbolic operations
can be given, separated by commas.
A combination of the letters `ugoa' controls which users'
access to the file will be changed: the user who owns it
(u), other users in the file's group (g), other users not in
the file's group (o), or all users (a). If none of these
are given, the effect is as if `a' were given, but bits that
are set in the umask are not affected.
The operator `+' causes the permissions selected to be added
to the existing permissions of each file; `-' causes them to
be removed; and `=' causes them to be the only permissions
that the file has.
The letters `rwxXstugo' select the new permissions for the
affected users: read (r), write (w), execute (or access for
directories) (x), execute only if the file is a directory or
already has execute permission for some user (X), set user
or group ID on execution (s), save program text on swap dev-
ice (t), the permissions that the user who owns the file
currently has for it (u), the permissions that other users
in the file's group have for it (g), and the permissions
that other users not in the file's group have for it (o).
A numeric mode is from one to four octal digits (0-7),
derived by adding up the bits with values 4, 2, and 1. Any
omitted digits are assumed to be leading zeros. The first
digit selects the set user ID (4) and set group ID (2) and
save text image (1) attributes. The second digit selects
permissions for the user who owns the file: read (4), write
(2), and execute (1); the third selects permissions for
other users in the file's group, with the same values; and
the fourth for other users not in the file's group, with the
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chmod never changes the permissions of symbolic links; the
chmod system call cannot change their permissions. This is
not a problem since the permissions of symbolic links are
never used. However, for each symbolic link listed on the
command line, chmod changes the permissions of the pointed-
to file. In contrast, chmod ignores symbolic links encoun-
tered during recursive directory traversals.
Change the mode of each FILE to MODE.
like verbose but report only when a change is made
-f, --silent, --quiet
suppress most error messages
output a diagnostic for every file processed
use RFILE's mode instead of MODE values
change files and directories recursively
display this help and exit
output version information and exit
Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the
symbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxXstugo.
Written by David MacKenzie.
Report bugs to <email@example.com>.
Copyright O 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying condi-
tions. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
The full documentation for chmod is maintained as a Texinfo
manual. If the info and chmod programs are properly
installed at your site, the command
chmod (fileutils) 4.1Last change: April 2001 2
should give you access to the complete manual.
chmod (fileutils) 4.1Last change: April 2001 3