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SunOS man pages : boot (1)

Maintenance Commands                                     boot(1M)

NAME

boot - start the system kernel or a standalone program

SYNOPSIS

SPARC boot [ OBP names ] [ file ] [ -afV ] [ -D default-file ] [ boot-flags ] [ -- ] [ client-program-args ] b [ device [ (c, u, p) ] ] [ -afV ] [ -D default- file ] [ boot-flags ] [ -- ] [ client-program-args ] IA b [ file ] [ -f ] [ boot-args ] i

DESCRIPTION

Bootstrapping is the process of loading and executing a standalone program. For the purpose of this discussion, bootstrapping means the process of loading and executing the bootable operating system. Typically, the standalone program is the operating system kernel (see kernel(1M)), but any standalone program can be booted instead. On a SPARC-based system, the diagnostic monitor for a machine is a good exam- ple of a standalone program other than the operating system that can be booted. If the standalone is identified as a dynamically-linked exe- cutable, boot will load the interpreter (linker/loader) as indicated by the executable format and then transfer control to the interpreter. If the standalone is statically-linked, it will jump directly to the standalone. Once the kernel is loaded, it starts the UNIX system, mounts the necessary filesystems (see vfstab(4)), and runs /sbin/init to bring the system to the "initdefault" state specified in /etc/inittab. See inittab(4). SPARC Bootstrap Procedure On SPARC based systems, the bootstrap procedure on most machines consists of the following basic phases. After the machine is turned on, the system firmware (in PROM) executes power-on self-test (POST). The form and scope of these tests depends on the version of the firmware in your system. After the tests have been completed successfully, the firmware attempts to autoboot if the appropriate flag has been set in the non-volatile storage area used by the firmware. The name of the file to load, and the device to load it from can also be manipulated. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 1 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) These flags and names can be set using the eeprom(1M) com- mand from the shell, or by using PROM commands from the ok prompt after the system has been halted. The second level program is either ufsboot (when booting from a disk), or inetboot (when booting across the network). Network Booting Network booting can follow either of two paths, RARP/bootparams or DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Proto- col), depending on the functions available in and configura- tion of the PROM. Machines of the sun4u kernel architecture have DHCP-capable PROMs and boot from the network using RARP/bootparams by default. Whichever network boot path is specified, RARP or DHCP, is followed all the way through to multi-user mode; there is no mixture of the RARP and DHCP activities. The boot command syntax for specifying the two methods of network booting are: boot net:rarp boot net:dhcp The command: boot net without a rarp or dhcp specifier, invokes the default method for network booting over the network interface for which net is an alias. The sequence of events for network booting using RARP/bootparams is described in the following paragraphs. The sequence for DHCP follows the RARP/bootparams descrip- tion. When booting over the network using RARP/bootparams, the PROM makes a reverse ARP request and when it receives a reply, the PROM broadcasts a TFTP request to fetch inetboot over the network from any server that responds and executes it. inetboot also makes another reverse ARP request, then uses the bootparams protocol (see bootparams(4)) to locate its root filesystem. It then fetches the kernel across the network using the NFS protocol and then executes it. When booting over the network using DHCP, the PROM broad- casts the hardware address and kernel architecture and requests an IP address, boot parameters, and network confi- guration information. After a DHCP server responds and is selected (from among potentially multiple servers), that SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 2 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) server sends to the client an IP address and all other information needed to boot the client. After receipt of this information, the client PROM downloads inetboot, loads that file into memory, and executes it. inetboot invokes the ker- nel, which loads the files it needs and releases inetboot. Startup scripts then initiate the DHCP agent (see dhcpagent(1M)), which implements the further activities of the DHCP. Booting from Disk When booting from disk (or disk-like device), the bootstrap- ping process consists of two conceptually distinct phases, primary boot and secondary boot. In the primary boot phase, the PROM loads the primary boot block from blocks 1 to 15 of the disk partition selected as the boot device. If the pathname to the standalone is relative (does not begin with a slash), the second level boot will look for the standalone in a platform-dependent search path. This path is guaranteed to contain /platform/platform-name. Many SPARC platforms next search the platform-specific path entry /platform/hardware-class-name. See filesystem(5). If the pathname is absolute, boot will use the specified path. The boot program then loads the standalone at the appropriate address, and then transfers control. If the filename is not given on the command line or other- wise specified, for example, by the boot-file NVRAM vari- able, boot chooses an appropriate default file to load based on what software is installed on the system, the capabili- ties of the hardware and firmware, and on a user configur- able policy file (see FILES, below). OpenBoot PROM boot Command Behavior The OpenBoot boot command takes arguments of the following form: ok boot [device-specifier] [arguments] The default boot command has no arguments: ok boot If no device-specifier is given on the boot command line, OpenBoot typically uses the boot-device or diag-device nvram variable. If no optional arguments are given on the command line, OpenBoot typically uses the boot-file or diag-file nvram variable as default boot arguments. (If the system is in diagnostics mode, diag-device and diag-file are used instead of boot-device and boot-file). SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 3 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) arguments may include more than one string. All argument strings are passed to the secondary booter; they are not interpreted by OpenBoot. If any arguments are specified on the boot command line, then neither the boot-file nor the diag-file nvram variable is used. The contents of the nvram variables are not merged with command line arguments. For example, the command ok boot -s ignores the settings in both boot-file and diag-file; it interprets the string "-s" as arguments. boot will not use the contents of boot-file or diag-file. The commands ok boot net and ok boot cdrom have no arguments; they will use the settings in boot-file or diag-file, if they are set, as default filename and argu- ments and pass them to boot. Accordingly, if boot-file is set to the 64-bit kernel filename and you attempt to boot the installation CD with boot cdrom, boot will fail if the installation CD contains only a 32-bit kernel. Since the contents of boot-file or diag-file may be ignored depending on the form of the boot command used, reliance upon the boot-file should be discouraged for most production systems. To change the OS policy, change the policy file. A significant exception is when a production system has both 32-bit and 64-bit packages installed, but the production system requires use of the 32-bit OS. In most cases, it is best to allow the boot command to choose an appropriate default based upon the system type, system hardware and firmware, and upon what is installed on the root filesystem. It is accepted practice to augment the boot command's policy by modifying the policy file; however, changing boot-file or diag-file may generate unexpected results in certain circumstances. This behavior is found on most OpenBoot 2.x and 3.x based systems. Note that differences may occur on some platforms. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 4 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) IA Bootstrap Procedure On IA based systems, the bootstrapping process consists of two conceptually distinct phases, primary boot and secondary boot. The primary boot is implemented in the BIOS ROM on the system board, and BIOS extensions in ROMs on peripheral boards. It is distinguished by its ability to control the installed peripheral devices and to provide I/O services through software interrupts. It begins the booting process by loading the first physical sector from a floppy disk, hard disk, or CD-ROM, or, if supported by the system or net- work adapter BIOS, by reading a bootstrap program from a network boot server. The primary boot is implemented in IA real-mode code. The secondary boot is loaded by the primary boot. It is implemented in 32-bit, paged, protected mode code. It also loads and uses peripheral-specific BIOS extensions written in IA real-mode code. The secondary boot is called boot.bin and is capable of reading and booting from a UFS file system on a hard disk or a CD or by way of a LAN using the NFS pro- tocol. The secondary boot is responsible for running the Configura- tion Assistant program which determines the installed dev- ices in the system (possibly with help from the user). The secondary boot then reads the script in /etc/bootrc, which controls the booting process. This file contains boot interpreter commands, which are defined below, and can be modified to change defaults or to adapt to a specific machine. The standard /etc/bootrc script prompts the user to enter a b character to boot with specified options, an i character to invoke the interpreter interactively, or any other char- acter to boot the default kernel. Once the kernel is loaded, it starts the operating system, loads the necessary modules, mounts the necessary filesystems (see vfstab(4)), and runs /sbin/init to bring the system to the ``initdefault'' state specified in /etc/inittab. See inittab(4).

OPTIONS

SPARC OBP names Specify the open boot prom designations. For example, on Desktop SPARC based systems, the designation /sbus/esp@0,800000/sd@3,0:a indicates a SCSI disk (sd) at target 3, lun0 on the SCSI bus, with the esp host adapter plugged into slot 0. file Name of a standalone program to boot. If a filename is not explicitly specified, either on the boot command line or in the boot-file NVRAM variable, boot chooses SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 5 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) an appropriate default filename. On most systems, the default filename is the 32-bit kernel. On systems capable of supporting both the 32-bit and 64-bit ker- nels, the 64-bit kernel will be chosen in preference to the 32-bit kernel. boot chooses an appropriate default file to boot based on what software is installed on the system, the capabilities of the hardware and firmware, and on a user configurable pol- icy file. -a The boot program interprets this flag to mean ask me, and so it prompts for the name of the standalone. The '-a' flag is then passed to the standalone program. -f When booting an Autoclient system, this flag forces the boot program to bypass the client's local cache and read all files over the network from the client's file server. This flag is ignored for all non- Autoclient systems. The -f flag is then passed to the standalone program. -V Display verbose debugging information. -D default-file Explicitly specify the default-file. On some systems, boot chooses a dynamic default file, used when none is otherwise specified. This option allows the default- file to be explicitly set and can be useful when boot- ing kadb(1M) since, by default, kadb loads the default-file as exported by the boot program. boot-flags The boot program passes all boot-flags to file. They are not interpreted by boot. See the kernel(1M) and kadb(1M) manual pages for information about the options available with the default standalone program. client-program-args The boot program passes all client-program-args to file. They are not interpreted by boot. IA file Name of a standalone program to boot. The default is to boot /platform/platform-name/kernel/unix from the root partition, but you can specify another program on the command line. -f When booting an Autoclient system, this flag forces the boot program to bypass the client's local cache and read all files over the network from the client's file server. This flag is ignored for all non- Autoclient systems. The -f flag is then passed to the SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 6 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) standalone program. boot-args The boot program passes all boot-args to file. They are not interpreted by boot. See kernel(1M) and kadb(1M) for information about the options available with the kernel.

IA BOOT SEQUENCE DETAILS

After a PC-compatible machine is turned on, the system firmware in the BIOS ROM executes a power-on self test (POST), runs BIOS extensions in peripheral board ROMs, and invokes software interrupt INT 19h, Bootstrap. The INT 19h handler typically performs the standard PC-compatible boot, which consists of trying to read the first physical sector from the first diskette drive, or, if that fails, from the first hard disk. The processor then jumps to the first byte of the sector image in memory. IA Primary Boot The first sector on a floppy disk contains the master boot block. The boot block is responsible for loading the image of the boot loader strap.com, which then loads the secondary boot, boot.bin. A similar sequence occurs for CD-ROM boot, but the master boot block location and contents are dictated by the El Torito specification. The El Torito boot also leads to strap.com, which in turn loads boot.bin. The first sector on a hard disk contains the master boot block, which contains the master boot program and the FDISK table, named for the PC program that maintains it. The mas- ter boot finds the active partition in the FDISK table, loads its first sector, and jumps to its first byte in memory. This completes the standard PC-compatible hard disk boot sequence. An IA FDISK partition for the Solaris software begins with a one-cylinder boot slice, which contains the partition boot program (pboot) in the first sector, the standard Solaris disk label and volume table of contents (VTOC) in the second and third sectors, and the bootblk program in the fourth and subsequent sectors. When the FDISK partition for the Solaris software is the active partition, the master boot program (mboot) reads the partition boot program in the first sector into memory and jumps to it. It in turn reads the bootblk program into memory and jumps to it. Regardless of the type of the active partition, if the drive contains multiple FDISK partitions, the user is given the opportunity to reboot another partition. bootblk or strap.com (depending upon the active partition type) reads boot.bin from the file system in the Solaris SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 7 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) root slice and jumps to its first byte in memory. For network booting, you have the choice of the boot floppy or Intel's Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE) standard. When booting from the network using the boot floppy, you can select which network configuration strategy you want by editing the boot properties, changing the setting for net- config-strategy. By default, net-config-strategy is set to rarp. It can have two settings, rarp or dhcp. When booting from the network using PXE, the system or network adapter BIOS uses DHCP to locate a network bootstrap program (NBP) on a boot server and reads it using Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). The BIOS executes the NBP by jumping to its first byte in memory. The NBP uses DHCP to locate the secondary bootstrap on a boot server, reads it using TFTP, and executes it. IA Secondary Boot The secondary boot, boot.bin, switches the processor to 32- bit, paged, protected mode, and performs some limited machine initialization. It runs the Configuration Assistant program which either auto-boots the system, or presents a list of possible boot devices, depending on the state of the auto-boot? variable (see eeprom(1M)). Disk target devices (including CDROM drives) are expected to contain UFS filesystems. Network devices can be configured to use either DHCP or Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) and bootparams RPC to discover the machine's IP address and which server will provide the root file system. The root file system is then mounted using NFS. After a suc- cessful root mount, boot.bin invokes a command interpreter, which interprets /etc/bootrc. Secondary Boot Programming Language for IA The wide range of hardware that must be supported on IA based systems demands great flexibility in the booting pro- cess. This flexibility is achieved in part by making the secondary boot programmable. The secondary boot contains an interpreter that accepts a simple command language similar to those of sh and csh. The primary differences are that pipelines, loops, standard output, and output redirection are not supported. IA Lexical Structure The boot interpreter splits input lines into words separated by blanks and tabs. The metacharacters are dollar sign ($), single-quote ('), double-quote ("), number sign (#), new- line, and backslash (\). The special meaning of metacharac- ters can be avoided by preceding them with a backslash. A new-line preceded by a backslash is treated as a blank. A number sign introduces a comment, which continues to the SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 8 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) next new-line. A string enclosed in a pair of single-quote or double-quote characters forms all or part of a single word. White space and new-line characters within a quoted string become part of the word. Characters within a quoted string can be quoted by preceding them with a backslash character; thus a single-quote character can appear in a single-quoted string by preceding it with a backslash. Two backslashes produce a single backslash, and a new-line preceded by a backslash produces a new-line in the string. IA Variables The boot maintains a set of variables, each of which has a string value. The first character of a variable name must be a letter, and subsequent characters can be letters, digits, or underscores. The set command creates a variable and/or assigns a value to it, or displays the values of variables. The unset command deletes a variable. Variable substitution is performed when the interpreter encounters a dollar-sign that is not preceded by a backslash. The variable name following the dollar sign is replaced by the value of the variable, and parsing continues at the beginning of the value. Variable substitution is per- formed in double-quoted strings, but not in single-quoted strings. A variable name can be enclosed in braces to separate it from following characters. IA Commands A command is a sequence of words terminated by a new-line character. The first word is the name of the command and subsequent words are arguments to the command. All commands are built-in commands. Standalone programs are executed with the run command. IA Conditional Execution of Commands Commands can be conditionally executed by surrounding them with the if, elseif, else, and endif commands: if expr1 ... elseif expr2 ... elseif expr3 ... else ... endif An if block may be embedded in other if blocks. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 9 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) IA Expressions The set, if, and elseif commands evaluate arithmetic expres- sions with the syntax and semantics of the C programming language. The ||, &&, |, ^, &, ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=, >>, <<, +, -, *, /, %, ~, and ! operators are accepted, as are (, ), and comma. Signed 32-bit integer arithmetic is performed. Expressions are parsed after the full command line has been formed. Each token in an expression must be a separate argu- ment word, so blanks must separate all tokens on the command line. Before an arithmetic operation is performed on an operand word, it is converted from a string to a signed 32-bit integer value. After an optional leading sign, a leading 0 produces octal conversion and a leading 0x or 0X produces hexadecimal conversion. Otherwise, decimal conversion is performed. A string that is not a legal integer is con- verted to zero. Several built-in functions for string manipulation are pro- vided. Built-in function names begin with a dot. String arguments to these functions are not converted to integers. To cause an operator, for example, -, to be treated as a string, it must be preceded by a backslash, and that backslash must be quoted with another backslash. Also be aware that a null string can produce a blank argument, and thus an expression syntax error. For example: if .strneq ( ${usrarg}X , \- , 1 ) is the safe way to test whether the variable usrarg starts with a -, even if it could be null. IA I/O The boot interpreter takes its input from the system console or from one or more files. The source command causes the interpreter to read a file into memory and begin parsing it. The console command causes the interpreter to take its input from the system console. Reaching EOF causes the interpreter to resume parsing the previous input source. CTRL-D entered at the beginning of console line is treated as EOF. The echo command writes its arguments to the display. The read command reads the system console and assigns word values to its argument variables. IA Debugging The verbose command turns verbose mode on and off. In ver- bose mode, the interpreter displays lines from the current source file and displays the command as actually executed SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 10 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) after variable substitution. The singlestep command turns singlestep mode on and off. In singlestep mode, the interpreter displays step ? before pro- cessing the next command, and waits for keyboard input, which is discarded. Processing proceeds when ENTER is pressed. This allows slow execution in verbose mode. IA Initialization When the interpreter is first invoked by the boot, it begins execution of a compiled-in initialization string. This string typically consists of "source /etc/bootrc\n" to run the boot script in the root file system. IA Communication With Standalone Programs The boot passes information to standalone programs through arguments to the run command. A standalone program can pass information back to the boot by setting a boot interpreter variable using the var_ops() boot service function. It can also pass information to the kernel using the setprop() boot service function. The whoami property is set to the name of the standalone program. IA Built-in Commands console Interpret input from the console until CTRL-D. echo arg1 ... Display the arguments separated by blanks and ter- minate with a new-line. echo -n arg1 ... Display the arguments separated by blanks, but do not terminate with a new-line. getprop propname varname Assign the value of property propname to the variable varname. A property value of length zero produces a null string. If the property does not exist, the vari- able is not set. getproplen propname varname Assign the length in hexadecimal of the value of pro- perty propname to the variable varname. Property value lengths include the terminating null. If the property does not exist, the variable is set to 0xFFFFFFFF (- 1). if expr If the expression expr is true, execute instructions to the next elseif, else, or endif. If expr is false, do not execute the instructions. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 11 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) elseif expr If the preceding if and elseif commands all failed, and expr is true, execute instructions to the next elseif, else, or endif. Otherwise, do not execute the instructions. else If the preceding if and elseif commands all failed, execute instructions to the next elseif, else, or endif. Otherwise, do not execute the instructions. endif Revert to the execution mode of the surrounding block. help Display a help screen that contains summaries of all available boot shell commands. read name1 ... Read a line from the console, break it into words, and assign them as values to the variables name1, and so forth. readt time ... Same as read, but timeout after time seconds. run name arg1 ... Load and transfer control to the standalone program name, passing it arg1 and further arguments. set Display all the current variables and their values. set name Set the value of the variable name to the null string. set name word Set the value of the variable name to word. set name expr Set the value of the variable name to the value of expr. expr must consist of more than one word. The value is encoded in unsigned hexadecimal, so that -1 is represented by 0xFFFFFFFF. setcolor Set the text mode display attributes. Allowable colors are black, blue, green, cyan, red, magenta, brown, white, gray, lt_blue, lt_green, lt_cyan, lt_red, lt_magenta, yellow, and hi_white. setprop propname word Set the value of the property propname to word. singlestep or singlestep on Turn on singlestep mode, in which the interpreter SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 12 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) displays step ? before each command is processed, and waits for keyboard input. Press ENTER to execute the next command. singlestep off Turn off singlestep mode. source name Read the file name into memory and begin to interpret it. At EOF, return to the previous source of input. unset name Delete the variable name. verbose or verbose on Turn on verbose mode, which displays lines from source files and commands to be executed. verbose off Turn off verbose mode. IA Built-in Functions The following built-in functions are accepted within expres- sions: .strcmp(string1, string2) Returns an integer value that is less than, equal to, or greater than zero, as string1 is lexicographically less than, equal to, or greater than string2. .strncmp(string1, string2, n) Returns an integer value that is less than, equal to, or greater than zero, as string1 is lexicographically less than, equal to, or greater than string2. At most, n characters are compared. .streq (string1, string2) Returns true if string1 is equal to string2, and false otherwise. .strneq (string1, string2, n) Returns true if string1 is equal to string2, and false otherwise. At most, n characters are compared. .strfind (string, addr, n) Scans n locations in memory starting at addr, looking for the beginning of string. The string in memory need not be null-terminated. Returns true if string is found, and false otherwise. .strfind can be used to search for strings in the ROM BIOS and BIOS extensions that identify different machines and peripheral boards. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 13 Maintenance Commands boot(1M)

EXAMPLES

SPARC Example 1: To Boot the Default Kernel In Single-User Interactive Mode To boot the default kernel in single-user interactive mode, respond to the ok prompt with one of the following: boot -as boot disk3 -as 32-bit SPARC Example 2: To Boot kadb Specifying The 32-Bit Kernel As The Default File To boot kadb specifying the 32-bit kernel as the default file: boot kadb -D kernel/unix Example 3: To Boot the 32-Bit Kernel Explicitly To boot the 32-bit kernel explicitly, the kernel file name should be specified. So, to boot the 32-bit kernel in single-user interactive mode, respond to the ok prompt with one of the following: boot kernel/unix -as boot disk3 kernel/unix -as 64-bit SPARC Example 4: To Boot the 64-Bit Kernel Explicitly To boot the 64-bit kernel explicitly, the kernel file name should be specified. So, to boot the 64-bit kernel in single-user interactive mode, respond to the ok prompt with one of the following: boot kernel/sparcv9/unix -as boot disk3 kernel/sparcv9/unix -as Refer to the NOTES section "Booting UltraSPARC Systems" before booting the 64-bit kernel using an explicit filename. IA Example 5: To Boot the Default Kernel In Single-User Interactive Mode To boot the default kernel in single-user interactive mode, respond to the > prompt with one of the following: SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 14 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) b -as b kernel/unix -as

FILES

/platform/platform-name/ufsboot second level program to boot from a disk or CD. /etc/inittab table in which the "initdefault" state is speci- fied. /sbin/init program that brings the system to the "initde- fault" state. /platform/platform-name/boot.conf /platform/hardware-class-name/boot.conf Primary and alternate pathnames for the boot pol- icy file. Note that the policy file is not imple- mented on all platforms. 32-bit SPARC and IA /platform/platform-name/kernel/unix default program to boot system. 64-bit SPARC only /platform/platform-name/kernel/sparcv9/unix default program to boot system. See NOTES section "Booting UltraSPARC Systems." IA Only /etc/bootrc script that controls the booting process. /platform/platform-name/boot/solaris/boot.bin second level boot program used on IA systems in place of ufsboot. /platform/platform-name/boot directory containing boot-related files.

SEE ALSO

uname(1), eeprom(1M), init(1M), installboot(1M), kadb(1M), kernel(1M), shutdown(1M), uadmin(2), bootparams(4), inittab(4) , vfstab(4), filesystem(5) System Administration Guide, Volume 1 SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 15 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) Sun Hardware Platform Guide OpenBoot Command Reference Manual

WARNINGS

The boot utility is unable to determine which files can be used as bootable programs. If the booting of a file that is not bootable is requested, the boot utility loads it and branches to it. What happens after that is unpredictable.

NOTES

platform-name can be found using the -i option of uname(1). hardware-class-name can be found using the -m option of uname(1). 64-bit SPARC Booting UltraSPARC Systems Certain platforms may need a firmware upgrade to run the 64-bit kernel. See the Sun Hardware Platform Guide for details. If the 64-bit kernel packages are installed and boot detects that the platform needs a firmware upgrade to run 64-bit, boot displays a message on the console and chooses the 32-bit kernel as the default file instead. On systems containing 200MHz or lower UltraSPARC-1 proces- sors, it is possible for a user to run a 64-bit program designed to exploit a problem that could cause a processor to stall. Since 64-bit progams cannot run on the 32-bit ker- nel, the 32-bit kernel is chosen as the default file on these systems. The code sequence that exploits the problem is very unusual and is not likely to be generated by a compiler. Assembler code had to be specifically written to demonstrate the prob- lem. It is highly unlikely that a legitimate handwritten assembler routine would use this code sequence. Users willing to assume the risk that a user might acciden- tally or deliberately run a program that was designed to cause a processor to stall may choose to run the 64-bit ker- nel by modifying the boot policy file. Edit /platform/platform-name/boot.conf so that it contains an uncommented line with the variable named ALLOW_64BIT_KERNEL_ON_UltraSPARC_1_CPU set to the value true as shown in the example that follows: ALLOW_64BIT_KERNEL_ON_UltraSPARC_1_CPU=true For more information, see the Sun Hardware Platform Guide. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 16 Maintenance Commands boot(1M) IA Only Because the ``-'' key on national language keyboards has been moved, an alternate key must be used to supply argu- ments to the boot command on an IA based system using these keyboards. Use the ``-'' on the numeric keypad. The specific language keyboard and the alternate key to be used in place of the ``-'' during bootup is shown below. Keyboard Substitute Key Italy ' Spain ' Sweden + France ? Germany ? For example, b -r would be typed as b +r on Swedish key- boards, although the screen display will show as b -r. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 3 May 2001 17