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SunOS man pages : auditreduce (1)

Maintenance Commands                              auditreduce(1M)

NAME

auditreduce - merge and select audit records from audit trail files

SYNOPSIS

auditreduce [ options ] [ audit-trail-file ... ]

DESCRIPTION

auditreduce allows you to select or merge records from audit trail files. Audit files may be from one or more machines. The merge function merges together audit records from one or more input audit trail files into a single output file. The records in an audit trail file are assumed to be sorted in chronological order (oldest first) and this order is main- tained by auditreduce in the output file. Unless instructed otherwise, auditreduce will merge the entire audit trail, which consists of all the audit trail files in the directory structure audit_root_dir/*/files (see audit_control(4) for details of the structure of the audit root). Unless stated with the -R or -S option, audit_root_dir defaults to /etc/security/audit. By using the file selection options it is possible to select some subset of these files, or files from another directory, or files named explicitly on the command line. The select function allows audit records to be selected on the basis of numerous criteria relating to the record's con- tent (see audit.log(4) for details of record content). A record must meet all of the record-selection-option criteria to be selected. Audit Trail Filename Format Any audit trail file not named on the command line must con- form to the audit trail filename format. Files produced by the audit system already have this format. Output file names produced by auditreduce are in this format. It is: start-time.end-time.suffix where start-time is the 14-character timestamp of when the file was opened, end-time is the 14-character timestamp of when the file was closed, and suffix is the name of the machine which generated the audit trail file, or some other meaningful suffix (e.g., all, if the file contains a com- bined group of records from many machines). The end-time may be the literal string not_terminated, to indicate that the file is still being written to by the audit system. Timestamps are of the form yyyymmddhhmmss (year, month, day, hour, minute, second). The timestamps are in Greenwich SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 1 Maintenance Commands auditreduce(1M) Mean Time (GMT).

OPTIONS

File Selection Options The file selection options indicate which files are to be processed and certain types of special treatment. -A All of the records from the input files will be selected regardless of their timestamp. This option effectively disables the -a, -b, and -d options. This is useful in preventing the loss of records if the -D option is used to delete the input files after they are processed. Note, however, that if a record is not selected due to another option, then -A will not over- ride that. -C Only process complete files. Files whose filename end-time timestamp is not_terminated are not processed (such a file is currently being written to by the audit system). This is useful in preventing the loss of records if -D is used to delete the input files after they are processed. It does not apply to files specified on the command line. -D suffix Delete input files after they deleted if the entire run is successful. If auditreduce detects an error while reading a file, then that file is not deleted. If -D is specified, -A, -C and -O are also implied. suffix is given to the -O option. This helps prevent the loss of audit records by ensuring that all of the records are written, only complete files are pro- cessed, and the records are written to a file before being deleted. Note that if both -D and -O are speci- fied in the command line, the order of specification is significant. The suffix associated with the latter specification is in effect. -M machine Allows selection of records from files with machine as the filename suffix. If -M is not specified, all files are processed regardless of suffix. -M can also be used to allow selection of records from files that contain combined records from many machines and have a common suffix (such as all). -N Select objects in new mode.This flag is off by default, thus retaining backward compatibility. In the existing, old mode, specifying the -e, -f, -g, -r, or -u flags would select not only actions taken with those IDs, but also certain objects owned by those SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 2 Maintenance Commands auditreduce(1M) IDs. When running in new mode, only actions are selected. In order to select objects, the -o option must be used. -O suffix Direct output stream to a file in the currenti audit_root_dir with the indicated suffix. suffix may alternatively contain a full pathname, in which case the last component is taken as the suffix, ahead of which the timestamps will be placed, ahead of which the remainder of the pathname will be placed. If the -O option is not specified, the output is sent to the standard output. When auditreduce places timestamps in the filename, it uses the times of the first and last records in the merge as the start-time and end-time. -Q Quiet. Suppress notification about errors with input files. -R pathname Specify the pathname of an alternate audit root direc- tory audit_root_dir to be pathname. Therefore, rather than using /etc/security/audit/*/files by default, pathname/*/files will be examined instead. -S server This option causes auditreduce to read audit trail files from a specific location (server directory). server is normally interpreted as the name of a sub- directory of the audit root, therefore auditreduce will look in audit_root_dir/server/files for the audit trail files. But if server contains any `/' charac- ters, it is the name of a specific directory not necessarily contained in the audit root. In this case, server/files will be consulted. This option allows archived files to be manipulated easily, without requiring that they be physically located in a direc- tory structure like that of /etc/security/audit. -V Verbose. Display the name of each file as it is opened, and how many records total were written to the output stream. Record Selection Options The record selection options listed below are used to indi- cate which records are written to the output file produced by auditreduce. Multiple arguments of the same type are not permitted. -a date-time Select records that occurred at or after date-time. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 3 Maintenance Commands auditreduce(1M) The date-time argument is described under Option Argu- ments, below. date-time is in local time. The -a and -b options can be used together to form a range. -b date-time Select records that occurred before date-time. -c audit-classes Select records by audit class. Records with events that are mapped to the audit classes specified by audit-classes are selected. Audit class names are defined in audit_class(4). The audit-classes can be a comma separated list of audit flags like those described in audit_control(4). Using the audit flags, one can select records based upon success and failure criteria. -d date-time Select records that occurred on a specific day (a 24- hour period beginning at 00:00:00 of the day specified and ending at 23:59:59). The day specified is in local time. The time portion of the argument, if supplied, is ignored. Any records with timestamps during that day are selected. If any hours, minutes, or seconds are given in time, they are ignored. -d can not be used with -a or -b. -e effective-user Select records with the specified effective-user. -f effective-group Select records with the specified effective-group. -g real-group Select records with the specified real-group. -j subject-ID Select records with the specified subject-ID where subject-ID is a process ID. -m event Select records with the indicated event. The event is the literal string or the event number. -o object_type=objectID_value Select records by object type. A match occurs when the record contains the information describing the speci- fied object_type and the object ID equals the value specified by objectID_value. The allowable object types and values are as follows: SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 4 Maintenance Commands auditreduce(1M) file=pathname Select records containing file system objects with the specified pathname, where pathname is a comma separated list of regular expressions. If a regular expression is preceeded by a tilde (~), files matching the expression are excluded from the output. For example, the option file=~/usr/openwin,/usr,/etc would select all files in /usr or /etc except those in /usr/openwin. The order of the regular expres- sions is important because auditreduce processes them from left to right, and stops when a file is known to be eitherselected or excluded. Thus the option file= /usr, /etc, ~/usr/openwin would select all files in /usr and all files in /etc. Files in /usr/openwin are not excluded because the regular expression /usr is matched first. Care should be given in surrounding the pathname with quotes so as to prevent the shell from expanding any tildes. filegroup=group Select records containing file system objects with group as the owning group. fileowner=user Select records containing file system objects with user as the owning user. msgqid=ID Select records containing message queue objects with the specified ID where ID is a message queue ID. msgqgroup=group Select records containing message queue objects with group as the owning or creating group. msgqowner=user Select records containing message queue objects with user as the owning or creating user. pid=ID Select records containing process objects with the specified ID where ID is a process ID. Pro- cess are objects when they are receivers of sig- nals. procgroup=group Select records containing process objects with group as the real or effective group. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 5 Maintenance Commands auditreduce(1M) procowner=user Select records containing process objects with user as the real or effective user. semid=ID Select records containing semaphore objects with the specified ID where ID is a semaphore ID. semgroup=group Select records containing semaphore objects with group as the owning or creating group. semowner=user Select records containing semaphore objects with user as the owning or creating user. shmid=ID Select records containing shared memory objects with the specified ID where ID is a shared memory ID. shmgroup=group Select records containing shared memory objects with group as the owning or creating group. shmowner=user Select records containing shared memory objects with user as the owning or creating user. sock=port_number|machine Select records containing socket objects with the specified port_number or the specified machine where machine is a machine name as defined in hosts(4). -r real-user Select records with the specified real-user. -u audit-user Select records with the specified audit-user. When one or more filename arguments appear on the command line, only the named files are processed. Files specified in this way need not conform to the audit trail filename format. However, -M, -S, and -R may not be used when processing named files. If the filename is ``-'' then the input is taken from the standard input. Option Arguments audit-trail-file An audit trail file as defined in audit.log(4). An audit trail file not named on the command line must SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 6 Maintenance Commands auditreduce(1M) conform to the audit trail file name format. Audit trail files produced as output of auditreduce are in this format as well. The format is: start-time . end-time . suffix start-time is the 14 character time stamp denoting when the file was opened. end-time is the 14 character time stamp denoting when the file was closed. end-time may also be the literal string not_terminated, indi- cating the file is still be written to by the audit daemon or the file was not closed properly (a system crash or abrupt halt occurred). suffix is the name of the machine that generated the audit trail file (or some other meaningful suffix; e.g. all would be a good suffix if the audit trail file contains a combined group of records from many machines). date-time The date-time argument to -a, -b, and -d can be of two forms: An absolute date-time takes the form: yyyymmdd [ hh [ mm [ ss ]]] where yyyy specifies a year (with 1970 as the earliest value), mm is the month (01-12), dd is the day (01-31), hh is the hour (00-23), mm is the minute (00-59), and ss is the second (00-59). The default is 00 for hh, mm and ss. An offset can be specified as: +n d|h|m| s where n is a number of units, and the tags d, h, m, and s stand for days, hours, minutes and seconds, respectively. An offset is relative to the starting time. Thus, this form can only be used with the -b option. event The literal string or ordinal event number as found in audit_event(4). If event is not found in the audit_event file it is considered invalid. group The literal string or ordinal group ID number as found in group(4). If group is not found in the group file it is considered invalid. group may be negative. pathname A regular expression describing a pathname. user The literal username or ordinal user ID number as found in passwd(4). If the username is not found in the passwd file it is considered invalid. user may be negative. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 7 Maintenance Commands auditreduce(1M)

EXAMPLES

Example 1: The auditreduce command. praudit(1M) is available to display audit records in a human-readable form. This will display the entire audit trail in a human-readable form: % auditreduce | praudit If all the audit trail files are being combined into one large file, then deleting the original files could be desir- able to prevent the records from appearing twice: % auditreduce -V -d /etc/security/audit/combined/all This will print what user milner did on April 13, 1988. The output will be displayed in a human-readable form to the standard output: % auditreduce -d 19880413 -u milner | praudit The above example may produce a large volume of data if milner has been busy. Perhaps looking at only login and logout times would be simpler. The -c option will select records from a specified class: % auditreduce -d 19880413 -u milner -c lo | praudit To see milner's login/logout activity for April 13, 14, and 15 the following is used. The results are saved to a file in the current working directory. Note that the name of the output file will have milnerlo as the suffix, with the appropriate timestamp prefixes. Note that the long form of the name is used for the -c option: % auditreduce -a 19880413 -b +3d -u milner -c login_logout -o milnerlo To follow milner's movement about the file system on April 13, 14, and 15 the chdir record types could be viewed. Note that in order to get the same time range as the above exam- ple we needed to specify the -b time as the day after our range. This is because 19880416 defaults to midnight of that day, and records before that fall on 0415, the end-day of the range. % auditreduce -a 19880413 -b 19880416 -u milner -m AUE_CHDIR | praudit In this example the audit records are being collected in summary form (the login/logout records only). The records are being written to a summary file in a different directory SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 8 Maintenance Commands auditreduce(1M) than the normal audit root to prevent the selected records from existing twice in the audit root. % auditreduce -d 19880330 -c lo -o /etc/security/audit_summary/logins If activity for user ID 9944 has been observed, but that user is not known to the system administrator, then the fol- lowing example will search the entire audit trail for any records generated by that user. auditreduce will query the system as to the current validity of ID 9944, and print a warning message if it is not currently active: % auditreduce -o /etc/security/audit_suspect/user9944 -u 9944

FILES

/etc/security/audit/server/files/* location of audit trails, when stored

ATTRIBUTES

See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri- butes: ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWcsu | |_____________________________|_____________________________|

SEE ALSO

bsmconv(1M), praudit(1M), audit.log(4), audit_class(4), audit_control(4), group(4), hosts(4), passwd(4), attributes(5)

DIAGNOSTICS

auditreduce will print out error messages if there are com- mand line errors and then exit. If there are fatal errors during the run auditreduce will print an explanatory message and exit. In this case the output file may be in an incon- sistent state (no trailer or partially written record) and auditreduce will print a warning message before exiting. Successful invocation returns 0 and unsuccessful invocation returns 1. Since auditreduce may be processing a large number of input files, it is possible that the machine-wide limit on open files will be exceeded. If this happens, auditreduce will print a message to that effect, give information on how many file there are, and exit. If auditreduce prints a record's timestamp in a diagnostic message, that time is in local time. However, when filenames SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 9 Maintenance Commands auditreduce(1M) are displayed, their timestamps are in GMT.

BUGS

Conjunction, disjunction, negation, and grouping of record selection options should be allowed.

NOTES

The functionality described in this man page is available only if the Basic Security Module (BSM) has been enabled. See bsmconv(1M) for more information. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 2 June 1999 10