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SunOS man pages : aspppd (1)

Maintenance Commands                                   aspppd(1M)

NAME

aspppd, aspppls - asynchronous PPP link manager

SYNOPSIS

/usr/sbin/aspppd [ -d debug-level ] /usr/sbin/aspppls

DESCRIPTION

Note: aspppd has been superseded and may be removed from future versions of Solaris. Refer to pppd(1M) instead. See /etc/ppp/ for configuration files. Use man pppd for more information. aspppd is the link manager for the asynchronous data link protocol specified in RFC1331, The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) for the Transmission of Multi-protocol Datagrams over Point-to-Point Links. It is a user level daemon that works in concert with the IP-Dialup driver (ipdcm) and PPP streams module ( ppp(7M)) to provide IP network services over an analog modem using dialed voice grade telephone lines. The link manager automates the process of connecting to a peer (remote) host when PPP service with that host is required. The connection process can be initiated either by sending an IP datagram to a (disconnected) peer host or by receiving a notification that a peer host desires to establish a con- nection. aspppls is the login service that connects the peer host machine to aspppd. aspppls is invoked by the serial port monitor when a peer machine logs into a PPP-enabled account. Its purpose is to cause the link manager to accept the incoming call.

OPTIONS

- d debug-level The debug-level is a number between 0 and 9. Higher numbers give more detailed debugging information. The output is written to the log file /etc/log/asppp.log.

USAGE

The link manager is invoked at boot time if the configura- tion file /etc/asppp.cf is present. After parsing the con- figuration file and building a path object for each peer host, it sleeps until (1) an IP datagram is routed to one of the ipd or ipdptp interfaces (see ppp(7M)), or (2) it is notified by the login service that a peer host is attempting to make a connection. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 1 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) In the first case, it consults the UUCP database, dials the modem, logs into the peer host, establishes the PPP data link, brings up IP, and forwards the IP datagram that ini- tiated the process. In the second case, the link manager opens the file descrip- tor supplied by the login service, establishes the PPP data link, and brings up IP. If the link manager determines that there has been no IP traffic for the period specified by the inactivity_timeout keyword, it disconnects the link by bringing down IP and PPP and closing the connection with the peer host. The link manager can be reinitialized by sending it the -HUP signal (with kill(1) for example), which causes it to disconnect all open PPP links and reread the configuration file. Path A path is an object that contains the state of a connection with a peer host. Information such as system names, inter- face names, timeout values, and other attributes are kept in the path object. There exists a path for each potential peer host. Paths are defined in the configuration file. Interfaces The link manager supports two types of IP layer interfaces; the point-to-multipoint interface (ipd) and the point-to- point interface (ipdptp) (see ppp(7M)). The point-to-multipoint interface logically connects the host machine to a network containing one or more peer hosts. IP traffic to or from any of the peer hosts is routed through the point-to-multipoint interface. When an ipd interface is configured, only one IP address, that of the host, is assigned. In other words, it behaves very similarly to an Ethernet interface, although the broadcast capability is not supported. This type of interface is well suited for a dial in PPP server. The point-to-point interface logically connects the host machine with one peer host. Only IP traffic to or from the peer host is routed through this interface. When an ipdptp interface is configured, two IP addresses are assigned. This type of interface is well suited to support a remote, or nomadic, machine. An interface must be fully configured and enabled (that is, up) before an IP datagram will be routed to it. It's also true that a point-to-multipoint interface must be fully con- figured and enabled before the link manager will associate SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 2 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) an incoming connection with it. It's not necessary, how- ever, for a point-to-point interface to be configured and enabled before an incoming connection will be assigned to it. A point-to-point interface that is "plumbed", but oth- erwise not configured or enabled (that is, down), can be used to accept an incoming connection if the path associated with the potential connection contains a dynamic interface specification (for example, interface ipdptp*). In this case the link manager will select a disabled (down) interface, configure the host and peer addresses, bring it up, and assign it for the duration of the connection. Routing Special attention should paid to routing issues that may arise if a host has more than one interface configured and enabled. By definition, a host with more then one enabled interface is a router, and the routing daemon (typically in.routed) will advertise the routes provided by the PPP interfaces. This is normally acceptable behavior for a dial in server, but can cause network disruptions if not admin- istered properly. To prevent routing information packets (RIP) from flowing over point-to-point interfaces, specify the norip keyword followed by the interface name in the /etc/gateways file. These entries, for example, prevent RIP from being sent over ipdptp0 and ipdptp1: norip ipdptp0 norip ipdptp1 See in.routed(1M) for further information. Authentication The link manager can be configured to support either the Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) or the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) as specified in RFC1334. Both protocols can be configured simultaneously, in which case, CHAP has precedence. A single host may par- ticipate as an authenticator (the local host requests that the peer host authenticate itself) or an authenticatee (the local host has been asked by the peer host to authenticate itself) or as both. It is also possible for a host to be an authenticator for one protocol and an authenticatee for the other protocol. PAP is a simple protocol similar to a standard login/password type of authentication. The PAP authentica- tor sends a message to its peer requesting that the peer authenticate itself. The peer responds with an authenticate SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 3 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) request packet that contains an id and a password (both in plaintext). The id and password are matched against a local copy, and if they match, the connection is established. If they don't match, the connection is dropped. CHAP does not pass any plaintext authentication data across the link. The CHAP authenticator sends a challenge packet to the peer that contains a random string. The peer then takes the string in the challenge packet and computes a response string that is a function of the challenge string and a shared secret key. The peer then sends a response packet back to the authenticator. The authenticator computes a string based on the original challenge string and the shared secret key and matches that result with the received response. If they match, the connection is established. Otherwise the connection is dropped. Configuration File The primary purpose of the /etc/asppp.cf configuration file is to define each path used by the link manager to establish and maintain communication with a peer system. The file consists of a sequence of tokens separated by white space (blanks, tabs, and new lines). There are no record boundaries or any other constraints on the placement of the tokens. If a token begins with a pound sign (#), all charac- ters between the pound sign and the next newline (0 are ignored (that is, they are treated as a comment). Alphanumeric tokens are case insensitive and are translated by the lexical analyzer into lower case before further pro- cessing. A string is a single token that does not contain embedded white space. The standard ANSI C escape sequence may be used to embed special characters (see an ANSI C manual for a list of escaped special characters). Use for the space character. If a pound sign appears at the beginning of a string, it must be escaped (#) to avoid interpretation as a comment. A NULL ( ) will truncate the string. Groups of tokens are assembled into units known as paths (essentially a human-readable form of the path object). A path begins with the keyword path and ends at the token found before any subsequent path (or defaults) keyword or at the last token in the file. The tokens comprising a path are further partitioned into small groups consisting mostly of keyword/value pairs that define the attributes of the current path. If a particular keyword/value pair is not listed for a path, the default value is assumed. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 4 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) The token sequences that begin with the substrings ipcp_ or lcp_ refer to PPP initial configuration options as specified in RFC1332, The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP). See the RFC for a more complete definition of these options. The following is an alphabetic list of the token sequences that can be contained in a configuration file. Required sequences are noted. Keywords chap_name string One or more octets representing the identification of this host. The name should not be NUL or CR/LF ter- minated. The name is sent to the authenticator in a response packet. Place this key/value pair in the authenticatee's configuration file. chap_peer_secret string One or more octets, preferably at least sixteen, that contain the secret key that is used with the challenge value to generate the string to match with the response received from the peer. Place this key/value pair in the authenticator's configuration file. chap_peer_name string One or more octets representing the identification of the peer transmitting the packet. The name should not be NUL or CR/LF terminated. The name is received from the peer in a response packet. Place this key/value pair in the authenticator's configuration file. chap_secret string One or more octets, preferably at least sixteen, that contain the secret key that is used with the received chal- lenge value to generate the response sent to the authenticator. Place this key/value pair in the authenticatee's configuration file. debug_level number number is between 0 and 9. Higher numbers give more detailed debugging information as shown in the table below. The output is written to the /etc/log/asppp.log file. The value set by the debug_level keyword overrides the -d command line option. level meaning __________________________________________________________ SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 5 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) 0 errors only 1 minimal information 4 some uucp chat-script info 5 all uucp chat-script info 7 maximum uucp info 8 PPP message traces 9 Raw IP packets defaults Indicates that all following token sequences up the next path keyword, or the end of file, set default attributes that affect subsequently defined paths. default_route When the IP layer corresponding to the current path is fully operational, add the peer IP address to the route table as the default destination. The route is removed when the IP layer is brought down. Note: the default_route keyword is only installed by point-to- point interfaces. ifconfig parameters (Required) The ifconfig keyword and associated parame- ters are passed to the shell for evaluation and execu- tion. It's used to define an interface. See the ifconfig(1M) man page for more information. inactivity_timeout seconds seconds is the maximum number of seconds that the con- nection associated with the current path can remain idle before it is terminated. 0 may be specified to indicate no timeout. The default is 120 seconds. interface ( ipd n | ipdptpn | ipdptp* ) (Required) Associates a specific point-to-multipoint or point-to-point interface as denoted by the non- negative integer n with the current path. The third form, ipdptp*, indicates that the interface associated with the path is a dynamic interface that will be selected at connect time from a pool of previously configured, inactive (down) point-to-point interfaces. ipcp_async_map hex-number Specifies the async control character map for the current path. The hex-number is the natural (that is, big endian) form representation of the four octets that comprise the map. The default value is ffffffff. ipcp_compression ( vj | off ) Indicates whether IP compression is enabled or not. If SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 6 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) enabled (vj), the Van Jacobson compression algorithm is used. The default is compression (vj). lcp_compression ( on | off ) Indicates whether PPP address, control, and protocol field compression is enabled or not. If enabled, both the address and control field compression and the pro- tocol field compression options are set. The default is compression (on). lcp_mru number number specifies a desired maximum receive unit packet size in octets. The default is 1500. negotiate_address ( on | off ) Indicates whether or not local IP address assignment is obtained through negotiation and assigned dynami- cally. If enabled, the local address will be obtained from the remote end of the PPP link. If so obtained, any local address other than 0.0.0.0 can be used to initially configure the interface. The default is to not negotiate (off). pap_id string One or more octets that represent the name of the host which will be sent to the authenticator. To indicate a zero length string, do not include the keyword. Place this key/value pair in the authenticatee's configura- tion file. pap_password string One or more octets that indicate the password for this host which will be sent to the authenticator. To indicate a zero length string, do not include the key- word. Place this key/value pair in the authenticatee's configuration file. pap_peer_id string One or more octets that indicate the name of the peer to be authenticated. To indicate a zero length string, do not include the keyword. Place this key/value pair in the authenticator's con- figuration file. pap_peer_password string One or more octets that indicate the password to be used for authentication. To indicate a zero length string, do not include the keyword. Place this key/value pair in the authenticator's configuration file. path (Required) Indicates that all following token SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 7 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) sequences are to be grouped together as attributes of this (current) path. The collection of attributes comprising the current path are terminated by the occurrence of a subsequent path or defaults keyword or by the end of file. peer_ip_address IP-address (Required for point-to-multipoint paths) Associates the IP-address with the current path. The value is ignored if the path specifies a point-to-point inter- face. The IP-address may be in "dotted decimal", hexadecimal, or symbolic (that is, hostname) format. peer_system_name name (Required) Associates the peer system name with the current path. The name is used to look up modem and peer specific information for outbound connections in the UUCP /etc/uucp/Systems file. For incoming connec- tions, the appropriate path is determined by matching name with the login name that was used to obtain the connection (that is, an entry in the /etc/passwd file specifies name in the username field). require_authentication ( off | pap [chap] | chap [pap] ) Indicates that the local host is the authenticator, and that the peer is required to authenticate itself. If either pap or chap is present, the peer must parti- cipate in the authentication protocol or the connec- tion will be terminated. If both pap and chap are present, then the local host will try to negotiate chap, and if that fails, the connection will be ter- minated. The local host will not try to negotiate pap. The default does not require authentication ( off). If pap is required, then the pap_peer_id and pap_peer_password keywords and values should be speci- fied for the associated path. If they are not speci- fied, the corresponding values are set to the null string. If chap is required then the chap_peer_name and chap_peer_secret keywords and values must be specified for the associated path. version n Specifies that the contents of the configuration file correspond to format version n. If this keyword is present, it must be the first keyword in the file. If absent, the version is assumed to be 1. This document contains the definition of the version 1 format for the configuration file. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 8 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) will_do_authentication ( off | pap [chap] | chap [pap] ) Indicates that the local host is a potential authenti- catee and is willing to participate in the specified authentication protocol. If both pap and chap are present then the local host is willing to participate in either authentication protocol. The default does not participate in authentication (off). If pap is available, then the pap_id and pap_password keywords and values should be specified for the associated path. If they are not specified, the corresponding values are set to the null string. If chap is available then the chap_name and chap_secret keywords and values must be specified for the associated path.

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Remote Machine In this example, the remote machine is most likely a nomadic or home machine with a single modem. # # Dial in to two servers # ifconfig ipdptp0 plumb nomad1 dialin1 private up path interface ipdptp0 peer_system_name Pdialin1 will_do_authentication pap pap_id nomad1 pap_password secret ifconfig ipdptp1 plumb nomad1 dialin2 private up path interface ipdptp1 peer_system_name Pdialin2 lcp_mru 1006 Example 2: Dial In Server supporting a point-to-multipoint interface This example shows a dial in server supporting a point-to- multipoint interface. There may be several modems attached to this server. The network addressed by the ipd interface will be advertised by the router, and all traffic destined for that network will be routed through this host. For that reason, it is not wise to support multiple dial in servers with point-to-multipoint interfaces to the same network. # # A point-to-multipoint dial in server # SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 9 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) ifconfig ipd0 plumb dialin1 netmask + up defaults interface ipd0 inactivity_timeout 900 # 15 minutes require_authentication chap pap chap_peer_name nomads path peer_system_name Pnomad1 chap_peer_secret abcd pap_peer_id nomad1 pap_peer_password secret peer_ip_address nomad1 path peer_system_name Pnomad2 chap_peer_secret apace peer_ip_address nomad2 path peer_system_name Pnomad3 inactivity_timeout 0 # No timeout for this host chap_peer_secret #123;. peer_ip_address nomad3 path peer_system_name Pnomad4 chap_peer_secret Myecret#Word peer_ip_address nomad4 Example 3: Dynamic point to-point dial in server This is another dial in server that supports dynamic point- to-point interfaces. Usually the server has one modem for each interface. One advantage of using dynamic interfaces is that (host) routes will only be advertised when an inter- face is up. Therefore, multiple dial in servers can be sup- ported. # # A dynamic point-to-point dial in server # ifconfig ipdptp0 plumb dialin2 client1 down ifconfig ipdptp1 plumb dialin2 client2 down ifconfig ipdptp2 plumb dialin2 client3 down defaults interface ipdptp* inactivity_timeout 900 debug_level 5 path peer_system_name Pnomad1 path peer_system_name Pnomad2 path peer_system_name Pnomad3 SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 10 Maintenance Commands aspppd(1M) path peer_system_name Pnomad4

FILES

/etc/asppp.cf configuration file /etc/log/asppp.log message log file /etc/uucp/Devices /etc/uucp/Dialers /etc/uucp/Sysfiles /etc/uucp/Systems /tmp/.asppp.fifo communication path between aspppd and aspppls /usr/sbin/aspppd link manager /usr/sbin/aspppls login service

ATTRIBUTES

See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri- butes: ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWapppu | |_____________________________|_____________________________|

SEE ALSO

kill(1), ifconfig(1M), in.routed(1M), attributes(5), ppp(7M) System Administration Guide, Volume 3 SunOS 5.8 Last change: 7 Feb 2001 11