Linux man pages : ld.so (8)
ld.so, ld-linux.so* - dynamic linker/loader
ld.so loads the shared libraries needed by a program, prepares the pro-
gram to run, and then runs it. Unless explicitly specified via the
-static option to ld during compilation, all Linux programs are incom-
plete and require further linking at run time.
The necessary shared libraries needed by the program are searched for
in the following order
o Using the DT_RPATH dynamic section attribute of the binary if
present and DT_RUNPATH attribute does not exist.
o Using the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH . Except if the
executable is a setuid/setgid binary, in which case it is
o Using the DT_RUNPATH dynamic section attribute of the binary if
o From the cache file /etc/ld.so.cache which contains a compiled
list of candidate libraries previously found in the augmented
library path. If, however, the binary was linked with -z node-
flib linker option, libraries in the default library paths are
o In the default path /lib, and then /usr/lib. If the binary was
linked with -z nodeflib linker option, this step is skipped.
The dynamic linker can be run either indirectly through running some
dynamically linked program or library (in which case no command line
options to the dynamic linker can be passed and the dynamic linker
which is stored in the .interp section of the program is executed) or
directly by running:
/lib/ld-linux.so.* [OPTIONS] [PROGRAM [ARGUMENTS]]
COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
--list List all dependencies and how they are resolved.
Verify that program is dynamically linked and this dynamic
linker can handle it.
Override LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable setting (see
Ignore RPATH and RUNPATH information in object names in LIST.
A colon-separated list of directories in which to search for ELF
libraries at execution-time. Similar to the PATH environment
A whitespace-separated list of additional, user-specified, ELF
shared libraries to be loaded before all others. This can be
used to selectively override functions in other shared
libraries. For setuid/setgid ELF binaries, only libraries in
the standard search directories that are also setuid will be
If set to non-empty string, causes the program to list its
dynamic library dependencies, as if run by ldd, instead of run-
If set to non-empty string, causes the dynamic linker to resolve
all symbols at program startup instead of deferring function
call resolval to the point when they are first referenced.
If set to non-empty string, warn about unresolved symbols.
Output verbose debugging information about the dynamic linker.
If set to all prints all debugging information it has, if set to
help prints a help message about which categories can be speci-
fied in this environment variable.
File where LD_DEBUG output should be fed into, default is stan-
dard output. LD_DEBUG_OUTPUT is ignored for setuid/setgid bina-
If set to non-empty string, output symbol versioning information
about the program if querying information about the program (ie.
either LD_TRACE_LOADED_OBJECTS has been set, or --list or --ver-
ify options have been given to the dynamic linker).
/lib/ld-linux.so.* ELF dynamic linker/loader
File containing a compiled list of directories in which to
search for libraries and an ordered list of candidate libraries.
File containing a whitespace separated list of ELF shared
libraries to be loaded before the program. libraries and an
ordered list of candidate libraries.
Roland McGrath, Ulrich Drepper and others. This man page is derived
from libc 5 ld.so manual page.
30 October 2000 ld.so(8)