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FreeBSD man pages : hier (7)
HIER(7) 	   FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	       HIER(7)


hier - layout of filesystems


A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy. / root directory of the filesystem /bin/ user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments /boot/ programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap defaults/ default bootstrapping configuration files; see loader.conf(5) /dev/ block and character device files MAKEDEV script for creating device files; see MAKEDEV(8) fd/ file descriptor files; see fd(4) /etc/ system configuration files and scripts defaults/ default system configuration files; see rc(8) gnats/ gnats configuration files; see send-pr(1) isdn/ isdn4bsd configuration files; see isdnd(8) kerberosIV/ configuration files for kerberos version IV; see kerberos(1) localtime local timezone information; see ctime(3) mail/ Sendmail control files mtree/ mtree configuration files; see mtree(8) namedb/ named configuration files; see named(8) periodic/ scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via cron(8); see periodic(8) ppp/ ppp configuration files; see ppp(8) ssl/ OpenSSL configuration files uucp/ uucp configuration files; see uucp(1) /kernel pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory at boot time). /modules/ loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8) /mnt/ empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a tem- porary mount point /proc/ process file system; see procfs(5), mount_procfs(8) /root/ root's HOME directory /sbin/ system programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments /stand/ programs used in a standalone environment /tmp/ temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system reboots /usr/ contains the majority of user utilities and applications bin/ common utilities, programming tools, and applications games/ useful and semi-frivolous programs include/ standard C include files arpa/ C include files for Internet service pro- tocols cam/ C include files for the Common Access Methods Layer scsi/ The SCSI device on top of CAM dev/ C include files for programming various FreeBSD devices ppbus/ The parallel port bus; see ppbus(4) usb/ The USB subsystem fs/ smbfs/ SMB/CIFS filesystem g++/ GNU C++ include files std/ GNU C++ libstdc++ include files isc/ ISC utility library libisc include files isofs/ cd9660/ iso9660 filesystem kerberosIV/ C include files for kerberos authentica- tion package; see kerberos(1) libmilter/ C include files for libmilter, the send- mail mail filter API machine/ machine-specific C include files msdosfs/ MS-DOS file system net/ misc network C include files netatalk/ Appletalk protocol netatm/ ATM include files; see atm(8) netinet/ C include files for Internet standard protocols; see inet(4) netinet6/ C include files for Internet protocol version 6; see inet6(4) netipx/ IPX/SPX protocol stacks netkey/ kernel key-management service netnatm/ NATM include files; see natm(4) netns/ Xerox NS protocols netsmb/ SMB/CIFS requester nfs/ C include files for NFS (Network File System) objc/ Objective C include files openssl/ OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) head- ers pccard/ PC-CARD controllers posix4/ POSIX real-time extensions includes; see p1003_1b(9) protocols/ C include files for Berkeley service pro- tocols readline/ get a line from a user, with editing; see readline(3) rpc/ remote procedure calls; see rpc(3) rpcsvc/ definition of RPC service structures; see rpc(3) security/ PAM; see pam(8) ss/ MIT SIPB `subsystem' library, part of Kerberos IV. sys/ system C include files (kernel data structures) ufs/ C include files for UFS (The U-word File System) ffs/ Fast filesystem mfs/ memory file system; see mount_mfs(8) ufs/ UFS filesystem vm/ virtual memory; see vmstat(8) lib/ archive libraries aout/ a.out archive libraries compat/ shared libraries for compatibility aout/ a.out backward compatibility libraries libdata/ misc. utility data files doscmd/ files used by doscmd (drivers, fonts, etc.); see doscmd(1) fonts/ fonts used by doscmd gcc/ ??? ldscripts/ linker scripts; see ld(1) lint/ various prebuilt lint libraries; see lint(1) msdosfs/ Character set conversion tables perl/ 5.00503/ contains Perl modules for Perl version 5.00503; see perl(1) stallion/ holds the download firmware images libexec/ system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs) aout/ utilities to manipulate a.out executables elf/ utilities to manipulate ELF executables lpr/ utilities and filters for LP print system; see lpr(1) sendmail/ the sendmail binary; see mailwrapper(8) and sendmail(8) sm.bin/ restricted shell for sendmail; see smrsh(8) uucp/ uucp utilities; see uucp(1) local/ local executables, libraries, etc. Also used as the default destination for the FreeBSD ports framework. Within local/, the general layout sketched out by hier(7) for /usr should be used. Exceptions are the man directory (directly under local/ rather than under local/share/), ports documentation (in share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics /etc). obj/ architecture-specific target tree produced by building the /usr/src tree ports/ The FreeBSD ports collection (optional). sbin/ system daemons & system utilities (executed by users) share/ architecture-independent files calendar/ a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see calendar(1) dict/ word lists; see look(1) web2 words from Webster's 2nd Inter- national words common words papers/ reference databases; see refer(1) doc/ miscellaneous documentation; source for most of the printed BSD manuals (available from the USENIX association) FAQ/ Frequently Asked Questions IPv6/ implementation notes for IPv6 bind/ documents pertaining to BIND (the Berkeley Internet Name Domain) es/ Spanish translations of docu- ments in /usr/share/doc handbook/ FreeBSD Handbook ja/ Japanese translations of docu- ments in /usr/share/doc ncurses/ HTML documents pertaining to ncurses; see ncurses(3X) ntp/ HTML documents pertaining to the Network Time Protocol papers/ UNIX Papers psd/ UNIX Programmer's Supplementary Documents ru/ Russian translations of docu- ments in /usr/share/doc smm/ UNIX System Manager's Manual tutorials/ FreeBSD tutorials usd/ UNIX User's Supplementary Docu- ments zh/ Chinese translations of docu- ments in /usr/share/doc examples/ various examples for users and programmers games/ ASCII text files used by various games groff_font/ device description file for device name info/ GNU Info hypertext system isdn/ ISDN libg++/ libg++'s genclass prototype/template class files locale/ localization files; see setlocale(3) man/ manual pages me/ macros for use with the me macro package; see me(7) misc/ misc system-wide ASCII text files fonts/ ??? pcvtfonts/ pcvt fonts; see pcvt(4) termcap terminal characteristics database; see termcap(5) mk/ templates for make; see make(1) nls/ national language support files; see mklocale(1) pcvt/ pcvt documentation and etc examples; see pcvt(4) perl/ perl library files; see perl(1) sendmail/ sendmail configuration files; see sendmail(8) skel/ example . (dot) files for new accounts syscons/ files used by syscons; see syscons(4) fonts/ console fonts; see vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1) keymaps/ console keyboard maps; see kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1) scrnmaps/ console screen maps tabset/ tab description files for a variety of ter- minals; used in the termcap file; see termcap(5) tmac/ text processing macros; see nroff(1) and troff(1) vi/ localization support and utilities for vi(1) zoneinfo/ timezone configuration information; see tzfile(5) src/ BSD, third-party, and/or local source files bin/ source code for files in /bin contrib/ source code for contributed software crypto/ source code for contributed cryptography software etc/ source code for files in /etc games/ source code for files in /usr/games gnu/ Utilities covered by the GNU General Pub- lic License include/ source code for files in /usr/include kerberosIV/ source code for kerberos version IV lib/ source code for files in /usr/lib libexec/ source code for files in /usr/libexec release/ files required to produce a FreeBSD release sbin/ source code for files in /sbin secure/ build directory for files in /usr/src/crypto share/ source for files in /usr/share sys/ kernel source code tools/ tools used for maintenance and testing of FreeBSD usr.bin/ source code for files in /usr/bin usr.sbin/ source code for files in /usr/sbin X11R6/ X11R6 distribution executables, libraries, etc (optional). bin/ X11R6 binaries (servers, utilities, local packages/ports). etc/ X11R6 configuration files and scripts. include/ X11R6 include files. lib/ X11R6 libraries. man/ X11R6 manual pages. share/ architecture-independent files. /var/ multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files account/ system accounting files acct execution accounting file; see acct(5) at/ timed command scheduling files; see at(1) jobs/ directory containing job files spool/ directory containing output spool files backups/ misc. backup files crash/ default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see crash(8) and savecore(8) cron/ files used by cron; see cron(8) tabs/ crontab files; see crontab(5) db/ misc. automatically generated system-specific database files empty/ empty directory used by sshd(8) for privilege separa- tion; see sshd(8) games/ misc. game status and score files heimdal/ kerberos server databases; see kdc(8) log/ misc. system log files wtmp login/logout log; see wtmp(5) mail/ user mailbox files msgs/ system messages database; see msgs(1) preserve/ temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death of an editor; see ex(1) quotas/ filesystem quota information files run/ system information files describing various info about system since it was booted ppp/ writable by the ``network'' group for command connection sockets; see ppp(8) utmp database of current users; see utmp(5) rwho/ rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and ruptime(1) spool/ misc. printer and mail system spooling directories clientmqueue/ undelivered submission mail queue; see sendmail(8) ftp/ commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root directory mqueue/ undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8) output/ line printer spooling directories uucp/ uucp spool directory uucppublic/ commonly ~uucp; public uucp temporary directory tmp/ temporary files that are kept between system reboots vi.recover/ the directory where recovery files are stored yp/ the NIS maps


This manual page documents the default FreeBSD filesystem layout, but the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system administra- tor's discretion. A well-maintained installation will include a cus- tomized version of this document.


apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1), fsck(8)


A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. FreeBSD 4.8 June 5, 1993 FreeBSD 4.8